model of alzheimer’s disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 888-896
Wenjuan Fan ◽  
Chen Xudong ◽  
Sun Yizheng ◽  
Shanshan Wu ◽  
Haili Wang ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that impacts a diverse population of older adults. As three-dimensional (3D) models are powerful tools for advancing AD studies, the authors have been developed AD cortical organoids to enable the observation of AD pathology at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. For creating the model, APPSwe/Ind (APP) and PSEN1 (PS1) mutant genes were transfected into mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) following which the iPSC lines that expressed mutant APP and PS1 proteins were obtained. Then, using modified serum-free suspended embryoid body culture, AD cerebral organoids were made successfully at various ages. The AD model can show AD’s biochemical and pathological alterations, such as overexpressions of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and a decrease of GABAergic interneurons. The proposed model has the potential for implementation in many biomedical applications, including AD drug screening, stem cell transplant, and neuronal tissue engineering.

Steven G. Fagan ◽  
Sibylle Bechet ◽  
Kumlesh K. Dev

AbstractTherapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have largely focused on the regulation of amyloid pathology while those targeting tau pathology, and inflammatory mechanisms are less explored. In this regard, drugs with multimodal and concurrent targeting of Aβ, tau, and inflammatory processes may offer advantages. Here, we investigate one such candidate drug in the triple transgenic 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD, namely the disease-modifying oral neuroimmunomodulatory therapeutic used in patients with multiple sclerosis, called fingolimod. In this study, administration of fingolimod was initiated after behavioral symptoms are known to emerge, at 6 months of age. Treatment continued to 12 months when behavioral tests were performed and thereafter histological and biochemical analysis was conducted on postmortem tissue. The results demonstrate that fingolimod reverses deficits in spatial working memory at 8 and 12 months of age as measured by novel object location and Morris water maze tests. Inflammation in the brain is alleviated as demonstrated by reduced Iba1-positive and CD3-positive cell number, less ramified microglial morphology, and improved cytokine profile. Finally, treatment with fingolimod was shown to reduce phosphorylated tau and APP levels in the hippocampus and cortex. These results highlight the potential of fingolimod as a multimodal therapeutic for the treatment of AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Alexander T. Clark ◽  
Eric E. Abrahamson ◽  
Matthew M. Harper ◽  
Milos D. Ikonomovic

Abstract Background Altered cerebrovascular function and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can contribute to chronic neuropathology and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TBI due to a blast-induced shock wave (bTBI) adversely affects the neurovascular unit (NVU) during the acute period after injury. However, the chronic effects of bTBI and Aβ on cellular components of the NVU and capillary network are not well understood. Methods We exposed young adult (age range: 76–106 days) female transgenic (Tg) APP/PS1 mice, a model of AD-like Aβ amyloidosis, and wild type (Wt) mice to a single bTBI (~ 138 kPa or ~ 20 psi) or to a Sham procedure. At 3-months or 12-months survival after exposure, we quantified neocortical Aβ load in Tg mice, and percent contact area between aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-immunoreactive astrocytic end-feet and brain capillaries, numbers of PDGFRβ-immunoreactive pericytes, and capillary densities in both genotypes. Results The astroglia AQP4-capillary contact area in the Tg-bTBI group was significantly lower than in the Tg-Sham group at 3-months survival. No significant changes in the AQP4-capillary contact area were observed in the Tg-bTBI group at 12-months survival or in the Wt groups. Capillary density in the Tg-bTBI group at 12-months survival was significantly higher compared to the Tg-Sham control and to the Tg-bTBI 3-months survival group. The Wt-bTBI group had significantly lower capillary density and pericyte numbers at 12-months survival compared to 3-months survival. When pericytes were quantified relative to capillary density, no significant differences were detected among the experimental groups, for both genotypes. Conclusion In conditions of high brain concentrations of human Aβ, bTBI exposure results in reduced AQP4 expression at the astroglia-microvascular interface, and in chronic capillary proliferation like what has been reported in AD. Long term microvascular changes after bTBI may contribute to the risk for developing chronic neurodegenerative disease later in life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Seung-Eun Lee ◽  
Daekee Kwon ◽  
Nari Shin ◽  
Dasom Kong ◽  
Nam Gyo Kim ◽  

AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is associated with familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD), and the accumulation of damaged mitochondria has been reported as an initial symptom that further contributes to disease progression. In the amyloidogenic pathway, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β-secretase to generate a C-terminal fragment, which is then cleaved by γ-secretase to produce amyloid-beta (Aβ). The accumulation of Aβ and its detrimental effect on mitochondrial function are well known, yet the amyloid precursor protein-derived C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) contributing to this pathology have rarely been reported. We demonstrated the effects of APP-CTFs-related pathology using induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) from AD patient-derived fibroblasts. APP-CTFs accumulation was demonstrated to mainly occur within mitochondrial domains and to be both a cause and a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. APP-CTFs accumulation also resulted in mitophagy failure, as validated by increased LC3-II and p62 and inconsistent PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/E3 ubiquitin ligase (Parkin) recruitment to mitochondria and failed fusion of mitochondria and lysosomes. The accumulation of APP-CTFs and the causality of impaired mitophagy function were also verified in AD patient-iNSCs. Furthermore, we confirmed this pathological loop in presenilin knockout iNSCs (PSEN KO-iNSCs) because APP-CTFs accumulation is due to γ-secretase blockage and similarly occurs in presenilin-deficient cells. In the present work, we report that the contribution of APP-CTFs accumulation is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy failure in AD patient-iNSCs as well as PSEN KO-iNSCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Shane M. Ohline ◽  
Connie Chan ◽  
Lucia Schoderboeck ◽  
Hollie E. Wicky ◽  
Warren P. Tate ◽  

AbstractSoluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα) is a regulator of neuronal and memory mechanisms, while also having neurogenic and neuroprotective effects in the brain. As adult hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease, we tested the hypothesis that sAPPα delivery would rescue adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. An adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) encoding murine sAPPα was injected into the hippocampus of 8-month-old wild-type and APP/PS1 mice, and later two different thymidine analogues (XdU) were systemically injected to label adult-born cells at different time points after viral transduction. The proliferation of adult-born cells, cell survival after eight weeks, and cell differentiation into either neurons or astrocytes was studied. Proliferation was impaired in APP/PS1 mice but was restored to wild-type levels by viral expression of sAPPα. In contrast, sAPPα overexpression failed to rescue the survival of XdU+-labelled cells that was impaired in APP/PS1 mice, although it did cause a significant increase in the area density of astrocytes in the granule cell layer across both genotypes. Finally, viral expression of sAPPα reduced amyloid-beta plaque load in APP/PS1 mice in the dentate gyrus and somatosensory cortex. These data add further evidence that increased levels of sAPPα could be therapeutic for the cognitive decline in AD, in part through restoration of the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in adults.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Junkai Hu ◽  
Stanley Li Lin ◽  
Melitta Schachner

AbstractDeposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is one of the important histopathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previously, we reported a correlation between cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1) expression and the occurrence of AD, but its relationship was unclear. Here, we report that the expression of L1 and a 70 kDa cleavage product of L1 (L1-70) was reduced in the hippocampus of AD (APPswe) mice. Interestingly, upregulation of L1-70 expression in the hippocampus of 18-month-old APPswe mice, by parabiosis involving the joining of the circulatory system of an 18-month-old APPswe mouse with a 2-month-old wild-type C57BL/6 mouse, reduced amyloid plaque deposition. Furthermore, the reduction was accompanied by the appearance of a high number of activated microglia. Mechanistically, we observed that L1-70 could combine with topoisomerase 1 (Top1) to form a complex, L1-70/Top1, that was able to regulate expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), resulting in the activation of microglia and reduction of Aβ plaques. Also, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ-1) transferred from the blood of young wild-type C57BL/6 mice to the aged AD mice, was identified as a circulating factor that induces full-length L1 and L1-70 expression. All together, these findings suggest that L1-70 contributes to the clearance of Aβ in AD, thereby adding a novel perspective in understanding AD pathogenesis.

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