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Immuno ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 104-117
Dennis Awuah ◽  
Alisa Ruisinger ◽  
Meshal Alobaid ◽  
Chidimma Mbadugha ◽  
Amir M. Ghaemmaghami

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), where it exerts anti-inflammatory responses against TLR4-induced inflammation. Recently, microRNA-511 (miR-511) has also emerged as a key player in controlling TLR4-mediated signalling and in regulating the function of DCs. Interestingly, PPARγ has been previously highlighted as a putative target of miR-511 activity; however, the link between miR-511 and PPARγ and its influence on human DC function within the context of LPS-induced inflammatory responses is unknown. Using a selection of miR-511-3p-specific inhibitors and mimics, we demonstrate for the first time that knockdown or overexpression of miR-511-3p inversely correlates with PPARγ mRNA levels and affects its transcriptional activity following treatment with rosiglitazone (RSG; PPARγ agonist), in the presence or absence of LPS. Additionally, we show that PPARγ-mediated suppression of DC activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in miR-511-3p knockdown DCs is abrogated following overexpression of miR-511-3p. Lastly, PPARγ activation suppressed LPS-mediated induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in DCs, most likely due to changes in miR-511-3p expression. Our data thus suggests that PPARγ-induced modulation of DC phenotype and function is influenced by miR-511-3p expression, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target against inflammatory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Eduardo A Albornoz ◽  
Alberto A Amarilla ◽  
Naphak Modhiran ◽  
Sandra Parker ◽  
Xaria X Li ◽  

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease, however, an increasing number of reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection can also cause severe neurological manifestations, including precipitating cases of probable Parkinson's disease. As microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a major driver of neurodegeneration, here we interrogated whether SARS-CoV-2 can promote microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation utilising a model of human monocyte-derived microglia. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 isolates can bind and enter microglia, triggering inflammasome activation in the absence of viral replication. Mechanistically, microglial NLRP3 could be both primed and activated with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in a NFκB and ACE2-dependent manner. Notably, virus- and spike protein-mediated inflammasome activation in microglia was significantly enhanced in the presence of α-synuclein fibrils, which was entirely ablated by NLRP3-inhibition. These results support a possible mechanism of microglia activation by SARS-CoV-2, which could explain the increased vulnerability to developing neurological symptoms akin to Parkinson's disease in certain COVID-19 infected individuals, and a potential therapeutic avenue for intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 570
Hui-Chun Yu ◽  
Hsien-Bin Huang ◽  
Hsien-Yu Huang Tseng ◽  
Ming-Chi Lu

We investigated the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its signaling pathway in the proinflammatory cytokines production of macrophages. The effects of different concentrations of BDNF on proinflammatory cytokines expression and secretion in U937 cell-differentiated macrophages, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to knockout p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), one of the BDNF receptors. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was conducted to search for BDNF-regulated microRNA. A very low concentration of BDNF (1 ng/mL) could suppress the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages but did not change their mRNA expression. BDNF suppressed IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in human monocyte-derived macrophages. In U937 cells, BDNF suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. The p75NTR knockout strongly suppressed IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α secretion in macrophages and LPS-stimulated macrophages. BDNF regulated the expression of miR-3168 with Ras-related protein Rab-11A as its target. In conclusion, BDNF suppressed proinflammatory cytokines secretion in macrophages and inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK. Knockout of p75NTR suppressed proinflammatory cytokines expression and secretion. BDNF upregulated the expression of miR-3168. The inhibition of p75NTR could be a potential strategy to control inflammation.

Francesca Graziano ◽  
Elisa Vicenzi ◽  
Guido Poli

Claudia Alteri ◽  
Lorenzo Piermatteo ◽  
Francesca Ceccherini Silberstein ◽  
Valentina Svicher ◽  
Carlo Federico Perno

2021 ◽  
Laura Díaz-Alvarez ◽  
Mariana Esther Martinez-Sánchez ◽  
Eleanor Gray ◽  
Enrique Ortega

Upon ligand engagement, certain receptors can activate an integrin through a mechanism called inside-out signalling. This phenomenon prepares the cell for the next steps of the process it will perform. CR3 (Complement receptor 3), the most abundant β2 integrin in monocytes and macrophages, and CD13 (aminopeptidase N) are two immune receptors with overlapping activities: adhesion, phagocytosis of opsonized particles, and respiratory burst induction. They can be found together in functional signalling microdomains, or lipid rafts, on the surface of human leukocytes. Thus, given their common functions, shared physical location and the fact that some phagocytic and adhesion receptors activate a selection of integrins, we hypothesized that CD13 could activate CR3 through an inside-out signalling mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we first ascertained the activation of CR3 after CD13 crosslinking in human monocyte-derived macrophages. We used an integrated analysis of bioinformatics and experimental data to suggest two possible signalling cascades that could explain the phenomenon. Finally, we show that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk is a key attenuator of this pathway. Our results demonstrated that, even in the absence of canonical signalling motifs, and despite having a noticeably short cytoplasmic tail (7-10 amino acids), CD13 was capable of triggering an inside-out signalling cascade, adding a new function to those already known for this moonlighting protein.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Finja C. Hansen ◽  
Aftab Nadeem ◽  
Kathryn L. Browning ◽  
Mario Campana ◽  
Artur Schmidtchen ◽  

Proteolytic cleavage of thrombin generates C-terminal host defense peptides exerting multiple immunomodulatory effects in response to bacterial stimuli. Previously, we reported that thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCPs) are internalized in monocytes and macrophages in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated which endocytosis pathways are responsible for the internalization of TCPs. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways are involved in the internalization of the prototypic TCP GKY25 in RAW264.7 and human monocyte-derived M1 macrophages, whereas the uptake of GKY25 in monocytic THP-1 cells is mainly dynamin-dependent. Internalized GKY25 was transported to endosomes and finally lysosomes, where it remained detectable for up to 10 h. Comparison of GKY25 uptake with that of the natural occurring TCPs HVF18 and FYT21 indicates that the pathway of TCP endocytosis is not only cell type-dependent but also depends on the length and composition of the peptide as well as the presence of LPS and bacteria. Finally, using neutron reflectometry, we show that the observed differences between HVF18 and the other 2 TCPs may be explained partially by differences in membrane insertion. Taken together, we show that TCPs are differentially internalized into monocytes and macrophages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (52) ◽  
pp. e2113694118
Nora Feuerer ◽  
Julia Marzi ◽  
Eva M. Brauchle ◽  
Daniel A. Carvajal Berrio ◽  
Florian Billing ◽  

Biomaterial characteristics such as surface topographies have been shown to modulate macrophage phenotypes. The standard methodologies to measure macrophage response to biomaterials are marker-based and invasive. Raman microspectroscopy (RM) is a marker-independent, noninvasive technology that allows the analysis of living cells without the need for staining or processing. In the present study, we analyzed human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) using RM, revealing that macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), interferons (IFN), or cytokines can be identified by lipid composition, which significantly differs in M0 (resting), M1 (IFN-γ/LPS), M2a (IL-4/IL-13), and M2c (IL-10) MDMs. To identify the impact of a biomaterial on MDM phenotype and polarization, we cultured macrophages on titanium disks with varying surface topographies and analyzed the adherent MDMs with RM. We detected surface topography–induced changes in MDM biochemistry and lipid composition that were not shown by less sensitive standard methods such as cytokine expression or surface antigen analysis. Our data suggest that RM may enable a more precise classification of macrophage activation and biomaterial–macrophage interaction.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Pedro Escoll ◽  
Lucien Platon ◽  
Mariatou Dramé ◽  
Tobias Sahr ◽  
Silke Schmidt ◽  

Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires'; disease, a severe pneumonia, injects via a type-IV-secretion-system (T4SS) more than 300 proteins into macrophages, its main host cell in humans. Certain of these proteins are implicated in reprogramming the metabolism of infected cells by reducing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) early after infection. Here we show that despite reduced OXPHOS, the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is maintained during infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs). We reveal that L. pneumophila reverses the ATP-synthase activity of the mitochondrial FOF1-ATPase to ATP-hydrolase activity in a T4SS-dependent manner, which leads to a conservation of the Δψm, preserves mitochondrial polarization and prevents macrophage cell death. Analyses of T4SS effectors known to target mitochondrial functions revealed that LpSpl is partially involved in conserving the Δψm, but not LncP and MitF. The inhibition of the L. pneumophila-induced 'reverse mode' of the FOF1-ATPase collapsed the Δψm and caused cell death in infected cells. Single-cell analyses suggested that bacterial replication occurs preferentially in hMDMs that conserved the Δψm and showed delayed cell death. This direct manipulation of the mode of activity of the FOF1-ATPase is a newly identified feature of L. pneumophila allowing to delay host cell death and thereby to preserve the bacterial replication niche during infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hylton E. Rodel ◽  
Isabella A. T. M. Ferreira ◽  
Carly G. K. Ziegler ◽  
Yashica Ganga ◽  
Mallory Bernstein ◽  

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli readily aggregate. We previously reported that Mtb aggregates lead to phagocyte death and subsequent efficient replication in the dead infected cells. Here, we examined the transcriptional response of human monocyte derived macrophages to phagocytosis of aggregated Mtb relative to phagocytosis of non-aggregated single or multiple bacilli. Infection with aggregated Mtb led to an early upregulation of pro-inflammatory associated genes and enhanced TNFα signaling via the NFκB pathway. These pathways were significantly more upregulated relative to infection with single or multiple non-aggregated bacilli per cell. Phagocytosis of aggregates led to a decreased phagosome acidification on a per bacillus basis and increased phagocyte cell death, which was not observed when Mtb aggregates were heat killed prior to phagocytosis. Mtb aggregates, observed in a granuloma from a patient, were found surrounding a lesion cavity. These observations suggest that TB aggregation may be a mechanism for pathogenesis. They raise the possibility that aggregated Mtb, if spread from individual to individual, could facilitate increased inflammation, Mtb growth, and macrophage cell death, potentially leading to active disease, cell necrosis, and additional cycles of transmission.

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