tumour necrosis factor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
Per Andersson ◽  
Pontus Karling

Background: Corticosteroids, immunomodulators (IM) and tumour necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but they also supress the defence against infectious disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of infectious events in patients with IBD and the association to concomitant medical therapy. Methods: We performed a retrospective medical chart review of patients with IBD aged 18–65 years included in the Swedish Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the catchment area of Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. Data were collected from the period 01 January 2006, to 31 January 2019. An infectious event was defined as an outpatient prescription of antimicrobials or a positive diagnostic test for infection. Results: During a period of 5,120 observation-years, we observed 1,394 events in 593 patients. The mean number of infectious events per 100 person-years was 27.2 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.46). There were no differences in mean incidence rates between patients treated with no immunosuppression (23.0 events per 100 person-years, SD: 50.4), patients treated with IM monotherapy (27.6 events per 100 person-years, SD: 49.9), patients treated with anti-TNF monotherapy (34.3 events per 100 person-years, SD: 50.1) and patients on combination therapy (22.5 events per 100-person-years, SD: 44.2). In a multivariate logistic regression, female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49–3.37) and combination therapy (AOR: 3.46; 95% CI: 1.52–7.85) were associated with higher risks of infection (>32 events per 100 person years). Also, patients treated with any immunosuppression treatment for 25–75% (AOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.21–4.34) and for >75% (AOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.19–3.12) of the observation period were at higher risks compared to patients treated with immunosuppression <25% of the observation period. Conclusion: We observed no significant difference in risk for infections between patients on monotherapy with IM or anti-TNF and patients with low use of immunosuppression, but there was a significant risk for combination therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam ◽  
Gaber El-Saber Batiha ◽  
Olubanke Olujoke Ogunlana ◽  
Shalom Nwodo Chinedu

This study aims at evaluating the ameliorative role of Terminalia catappa aqueous leaf extract (TCA) on hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in a high-fat, low dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Experimental rats were treated orally with 400 and 800 mg/kg bw TCA daily for four weeks. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma glucose concentration, protein concentration, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarkers were assayed using standard methods. Hepatic relative expressions of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-six (IL-6), and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) were also assessed. Molecular docking and prediction of major TCA phytoconstituents’ biological activity related to T2DM-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in silico. Induction of diabetes significantly ( p < 0.05 ) reduced superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and peroxidase activities. Glutathione and protein stores were significantly ( p < 0.05 ) depleted, while glucose, MDA, interleukin-six (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were significantly ( p < 0.05 ) increased. A significant ( p < 0.05 ) upregulation of hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 expression and downregulation ( p < 0.05 ) of Nrf-2 expression were observed during diabetes onset. TCA treatment significantly ( p < 0.05 ) modulated systemic diabetic-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, mRNA expression dysregulation, and dysregulated macromolecule metabolism. However, only 800 mg/kg TCA treatment significantly ( p < 0.05 ) downregulated hepatic TNF-α expression. 9-Oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,6-diol and 1,2,3-Benzenetriol bound comparably to glibenclamide in Nrf-2, IL-6, and TNF-α binding pockets. They were predicted to be GST A and M substrate, JAK2 expression, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, NADPH peroxidase, and glucose oxidase inhibitors. These results suggest that TCA ameliorates hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation by activating Nrf-2 gene.

Nazakat Hussain Memon ◽  
Maaz Khan ◽  
Muhammad Raza Memon ◽  
Abdul Hameed Lanjwani ◽  
Farhatullah Kandhro ◽  

The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge about the role of tumour necrosis factor-α 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 in neuro-inflammation diseases. We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for available literature from 24Feb. 2018–12 May 2021, using terms related to neuroinflammation, tumour necrosis factor-α, tumour necrosis factor II (TNFR-II), TNF-α and related diseases, TNFR-II and inflammation-related diseases, their relationships, and polymorphism. The main outcomes assessed were the presence of plaques and tangles, behaviour and cognition, reduction in brain tissue mass, and synaptic function the majority of studies were documented a beneficial effect in other areas, including the presence of plaques and tangles and synaptic function. The human studies were showed that TNF-αI was beneficial to Alzheimer's disease patients, with one being a small pilot study and the latter being an observational study, with a high risk of bias. It is concluded that the functions and mechanisms of TNF-α and TNFR-II in inflammation-related diseases will provide new viewpoints and theories in the development and treatment of these diseases. They play important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases induced by or related to inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Thomas S. Webberley ◽  
Giulia Masetti ◽  
Laura M. Baker ◽  
Jordanna Dally ◽  
Timothy R. Hughes ◽  

The anti-inflammatory and cholesterol lowering capabilities of probiotic bacteria highlight them as potential prophylactics against chronic inflammatory diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease. Previous studies in silico, in vitro, and in vivo suggest that the Lab4 probiotic consortium may harbour such capabilities and in the current study, we assessed plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines, short chain fatty acids and lipids and faecal levels of bile acids in a subpopulation of healthy Wistar rats included in 90-day repeat dose oral toxicity study. In the rats receiving Lab4, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth regulated oncogene were significantly lower compared to the control group demonstrating a systemic anti-inflammatory effect. These changes occurred alongside significant reductions in plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases in faecal bile acid excretion implying the ability to lower circulating cholesterol via the deconjugation of intestinal bile acids. Correlative analysis identified significant associations between plasma tumour necrosis factor-α and the plasma total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and faecal levels of bifidobacteria in the Lab4 rats. Together, these data highlight Lab4 supplementation as a holistic approach to CVD prevention and encourages further studies in humans.

2021 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-220991
Laura C Coates ◽  
Laure Gossec ◽  
Elke Theander ◽  
Paul Bergmans ◽  
Marlies Neuhold ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate efficacy and safety of guselkumab, an anti-interleukin-23p19-subunit antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with prior inadequate response (IR) to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi).MethodsAdults with active PsA (≥3 swollen and ≥3 tender joints) who discontinued ≤2 TNFi due to IR (lack of efficacy or intolerance) were randomised (2:1) to subcutaneous guselkumab 100 mg or placebo at week 0, week 4, then every 8 weeks (Q8W) through week 44. Patients receiving placebo crossed over to guselkumab at week 24. The primary (ACR20) and key secondary (change in HAQ-DI, ACR50, change in SF-36 PCS and PASI100) endpoints, at week 24, underwent fixed-sequence testing (two-sided α=0.05). Adverse events (AEs) were assessed through week 56.ResultsAmong 285 participants (female (52%), one (88%) or two (12%) prior TNFi), 88% of 189 guselkumab and 86% of 96 placebo→guselkumab patients completed study agent through week 44. A statistically significantly higher proportion of patients receiving guselkumab (44.4%) than placebo (19.8%) achieved ACR20 (%difference (95% CI): 24.6 (14.1 to 35.2); multiplicity-adjusted p<0.001) at week 24. Guselkumab was superior to placebo for each key secondary endpoint (multiplicity-adjusted p<0.01). ACR20 response (non-responder imputation) in the guselkumab group was 58% at week 48; >80% of week 24 responders maintained response at week 48. Through week 24, serious AEs/serious infections occurred in 3.7%/0.5% of 189 guselkumab-randomised and 3.1%/0% of 96 placebo-randomised patients; the guselkumab safety profile was similar through week 56, with no deaths or opportunistic infections.ConclusionGuselkumab significantly improved joint and skin manifestations and physical function in patients with TNFi-IR PsA. A favourable benefit–risk profile was demonstrated through 1 year.Trial registration numberNCT03796858.

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