kinase activity
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RNA ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. rna.078994.121
Haina Huang ◽  
Melissa D Parker ◽  
Katrin Karbstein

Ribosome assembly is an intricate process, which in eukaryotes is promoted by a large machinery comprised of over 200 assembly factors (AF) that enable the modification, folding, and processing of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the binding of the 79 ribosomal proteins. While some early assembly steps occur via parallel pathways, the process overall is highly hierarchical, which allows for the integration of maturation steps with quality control processes that ensure only fully and correctly assembled subunits are released into the translating pool. How exactly this hierarchy is established, in particular given that there are many instances of RNA substrate “handover” from one highly related AF to another remains to be determined. Here we have investigated the role of Tsr3, which installs a universally conserved modification in the P-site of the small ribosomal subunit late in assembly. Our data demonstrate that Tsr3 separates the activities of the Rio kinases, Rio2 and Rio1, with whom it shares a binding site. By binding after Rio2 dissociation, Tsr3 prevents rebinding of Rio2, promoting forward assembly. After rRNA modification is complete, Tsr3 dissociates, thereby allowing for recruitment of Rio1. Inactive Tsr3 blocks Rio1, which can be rescued using mutants that bypass the requirement for Rio1 activity. Finally, yeast strains lacking Tsr3 randomize the binding of the two kinases, leading to the release of immature ribosomes into the translating pool. These data demonstrate a role for Tsr3 and its modification activity in establishing a hierarchy for the function of the Rio kinases.

2022 ◽  
Ben F Brian ◽  
Frances V Sjaastad ◽  
Tanya S Freedman

The kinase Csk is the primary negative regulator of the Src-family kinases (SFKs, i.e., Lck, Fyn, Lyn, Hck, Fgr, Blk, Src, Yes), phosphorylating a tyrosine on the SFK C-terminal tail that nucleates an autoinhibitory complex. Csk also binds phosphatases, including PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) and immune-cell PTPN22 (Pep/LYP), which dephosphorylate the SFK activation loop to promote autoinhibition. High local concentrations of Csk are required to promote its negative-regulatory function, and Csk-binding proteins (e.g., CBP/PAG1) oligomerize within membrane microdomains. Purified Csk also homodimerizes in solution through an interface that overlaps the phosphatase binding site. Here we demonstrate that Csk can homodimerize in Jurkat T cells, in competition with PTPN22 binding. We designed SH3-domain mutations in Csk that selectively impair homodimerization (H21I) or PTPN22 binding (K43D) and verified their kinase activity in solution. Csk W47A, an SH3-domain mutant commonly used to block PTPN22 binding, also impairs homodimerization. Csk H21I and K43D will be useful tools for dissecting the protein-specific drivers of autoimmunity mediated by the human polymorphism PTPN22 R620W, which impairs interaction with both Csk and with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF3. Future investigations of Csk homodimer activity and phosphatase interactions may reveal new facets of SFK regulation in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.

2022 ◽  
Tommaso Mari ◽  
Kristin Moesbauer ◽  
Emanuel Wyler ◽  
Markus Landthaler ◽  
Christian Drosten ◽  

Phosphoproteomics routinely quantifies changes in the levels of thousands of phosphorylation sites, but functional analysis of such data remains a major challenge. While databases like PhosphoSitePlus contain information about many phosphorylation sites, the vast majority of known sites are not assigned to any protein kinase. Assigning changes in the phosphoproteome to the activity of individual kinases therefore remains a key challenge.. A recent large-scale study systematically identified in vitro substrates for most human protein kinases. Here, we reprocessed and filtered these data to generate an in vitro Kinase-to-Phosphosite database (iKiP-DB). We show that iKiP-DB can accurately predict changes in kinase activity in published phosphoproteomic datasets for both well-studied and poorly characterized kinases. We apply iKiP-DB to a newly generated phosphoproteomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung epithelial cells and provide evidence for coronavirus-induced changes in host cell kinase activity. In summary, we show that iKiP-DB is widely applicable to facilitate the functional analysis of phosphoproteomic datasets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 402
Matteo Rigato ◽  
Gianni Carraro ◽  
Irene Cirella ◽  
Silvia Dian ◽  
Valentina Di Di Vico ◽  

Autosomal dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic kidney disease. It causes progressive renal failure, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension, all of which are strictly linked to oxidative stress (OxSt). Treatment with tolvaptan is known to slow the renal deterioration rate, but not all the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect are well-established. We evaluated the OxSt state in untreated ADPKD patients compared to that in tolvaptan-treated ADPKD patients and healthy subjects. OxSt was assessed in nine patients for each group in terms of mononuclear cell p22phox protein expression, NADPH oxidase key subunit, MYPT-1 phosphorylation state, marker of Rho kinase activity (Western blot) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, induced and protective against OxSt (ELISA). p22phox protein expression was higher in untreated ADPKD patients compared to treated patients and controls: 1.42 ± 0.11 vs. 0.86 ± 0.15 d.u., p = 0.015, vs. 0.53 ± 0.11 d.u., p < 0.001, respectively. The same was observed for phosphorylated MYPT-1: 0.96 ± 0.28 vs. 0.68 ± 0.09 d.u., p = 0.013 and vs. 0.47 ± 0.13 d.u., p < 0.001, respectively, while the HO-1 expression of untreated patients was significantly lower compared to that of treated patients and controls: 5.33 ± 3.34 vs. 2.08 ± 0.79 ng/mL, p = 0.012, vs. 1.97 ± 1.22 ng/mL, p = 0.012, respectively. Tolvaptan-treated ADPKD patients have reduced OxSt levels compared to untreated patients. This effect may contribute to the slowing of renal function loss observed with tolvaptan treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Khawar Ali ◽  
Wenjuan Li ◽  
Yaopeng Qin ◽  
Shanshan Wang ◽  
Lijie Feng ◽  

Plants acquire the ability to adapt to the environment using transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to sense the challenges from their surroundings and respond appropriately. RLKs perceive a variety of ligands through their variable extracellular domains (ECDs) that activate the highly conserved intracellular kinase domains (KDs) to control distinct biological functions through a well-developed downstream signaling cascade. A new study has emerged that brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) family and excess microsporocytes 1 (EMS1) but not GASSHO1 (GSO1) and other RLKs control distinct biological functions through the same signaling pathway, raising a question how the signaling pathway represented by BRI1 is specified. Here, we confirm that BRI1-KD is not functionally replaceable by GSO1-KD since the chimeric BRI1-GSO1 cannot rescue bri1 mutants. We then identify two subdomains S1 and S2. BRI1 with its S1 and S2 substituted by that of GSO1 cannot rescue bri1 mutants. Conversely, chimeric BRI1-GSO1 with its S1 and S2 substituted by that of BRI1 can rescue bri1 mutants, suggesting that S1 and S2 are the sufficient requirements to specify the signaling function of BRI1. Consequently, all the other subdomains in the KD of BRI1 are functionally replaceable by that of GSO1 although the in vitro kinase activities vary after replacements, suggesting their functional robustness and mutational plasticity with diverse kinase activity. Interestingly, S1 contains αC-β4 loop as an allosteric hotspot and S2 includes kinase activation loop, proposedly regulating kinase activities. Further analysis reveals that this specific function requires β4 and β5 in addition to αC-β4 loop in S1. We, therefore, suggest that BRI1 specifies its kinase function through an allosteric regulation of these two subdomains to control its distinct biological functions, providing a new insight into the kinase evolution.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12708
Łukasz Marcin Tota ◽  
Szczepan Stanisław Wiecha

The study aimed to evaluate changes in selected biochemical indicators among mixed martial arts competitors in subsequent periods of the training cycle. The research involved 12 mixed martial arts athletes aged 25.8 ± 4.2 years competing in the intermediate category. Selected somatic indicators were measured twice. Biochemical indicators were assessed five times during the 14-week study period. Serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, uric acid, myoglobin, total protein, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor, as well as creatine kinase activity were determined. One hour after sparring completion, there were significant increases in cortisol (by 54.9%), uric acid (22.0%), myoglobin (565.0%), and interleukin 6 (280.3%) as compared with the values before the simulated fight. The highest creatine kinase activity (893.83 ± 139.31 U/l), as well as tumor necrosis factor (3.93 ± 0.71 pg/ml) and testosterone (5.83 ± 0.81 ng/ml) concentrations (p = 0.00) were recorded 24 hours after the simulation. Systematic observation of selected blood biochemical indicators in the training process periodization in mixed martial arts helps understand adaptive, compensatory, and regenerative mechanisms occurring in training athletes.

Oncogenesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Franz Ketzer ◽  
Hend Abdelrasoul ◽  
Mona Vogel ◽  
Ralf Marienfeld ◽  
Markus Müschen ◽  

AbstractThe D-type cyclins (CCND1, CCND2, and CCND3) in association with CDK4/6 are known drivers of cell cycle progression. We reported previously that inactivation of FOXO1 confers growth arrest and apoptosis in B-ALL, partially mediated by subsequent depletion of CCND3. Given that previously the canonical MYC target CCND2 has been considered to play the major role in B-ALL proliferation, further investigation of the role of FOXO1 in CCND3 transcription and the role of CCND3 in B-ALL is warranted. In this study, we demonstrated that CCND3 is essential for the proliferation and survival of B-ALL, independent of the mutational background. Respectively, its expression at mRNA level exceeds that of CCND1 and CCND2. Furthermore, we identified FOXO1 as a CCND3-activating transcription factor in B-ALL. By comparing the effects of CCND3 depletion and CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib on B-ALL cells harboring different driver mutations, we found that the anti-apoptotic effect of CCND3 is independent of the kinase activity of the CCND3-CDK4/6 complex. Moreover, we found that CCND3 contributes to CDK8 transcription, which in part might explain the anti-apoptotic effect of CCND3. Finally, we found that increased CCND3 expression is associated with the development of resistance to palbociclib. We conclude that CCND3 plays an essential role in the maintenance of B-ALL, regardless of the underlying driver mutation. Moreover, downregulation of CCND3 expression might be superior to inhibition of CDK4/6 kinase activity in terms of B-ALL treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Enquan Xu ◽  
Ravindra Boddu ◽  
Hisham A. Abdelmotilib ◽  
Arpine Sokratian ◽  
Kaela Kelly ◽  

Abstract Background Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and SNCA are genetically linked to late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aggregated α-synuclein pathologically defines PD. Recent studies identified elevated LRRK2 expression in pro-inflammatory CD16+ monocytes in idiopathic PD, as well as increased phosphorylation of the LRRK2 kinase substrate Rab10 in monocytes in some LRRK2 mutation carriers. Brain-engrafting pro-inflammatory monocytes have been implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD models. Here we examine how α-synuclein and LRRK2 interact in monocytes and subsequent neuroinflammatory responses. Methods Human and mouse monocytes were differentiated to distinct transcriptional states resembling macrophages, dendritic cells, or microglia, and exposed to well-characterized human or mouse α-synuclein fibrils. LRRK2 expression and LRRK2-dependent Rab10 phosphorylation were measured with monoclonal antibodies, and myeloid cell responses to α-synuclein fibrils in R1441C-Lrrk2 knock-in mice or G2019S-Lrrk2 BAC mice were evaluated by flow cytometry. Chemotaxis assays were performed with monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with α-synuclein fibrils and microglia in Boyden chambers. Results α-synuclein fibrils robustly stimulate LRRK2 and Rab10 phosphorylation in human and mouse macrophages and dendritic-like cells. In these cells, α-synuclein fibrils stimulate LRRK2 through JAK-STAT activation and intrinsic LRRK2 kinase activity in a feed-forward pathway that upregulates phosphorylated Rab10. In contrast, LRRK2 expression and Rab10 phosphorylation are both suppressed in microglia-like cells that are otherwise highly responsive to α-synuclein fibrils. Corroborating these results, LRRK2 expression in the brain parenchyma occurs in pro-inflammatory monocytes infiltrating from the periphery, distinct from brain-resident microglia. Mice expressing pathogenic LRRK2 mutations G2019S or R1441C have increased numbers of infiltrating pro-inflammatory monocytes in acute response to α-synuclein fibrils. In primary cultured macrophages, LRRK2 kinase inhibition dampens α-synuclein fibril and microglia-stimulated chemotaxis. Conclusions Pathologic α-synuclein activates LRRK2 expression and kinase activity in monocytes and induces their recruitment to the brain. These results predict that LRRK2 kinase inhibition may attenuate damaging pro-inflammatory monocyte responses in the brain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2116415119
Filip Van Hauwermeiren ◽  
Nina Van Opdenbosch ◽  
Hanne Van Gorp ◽  
Nathalia de Vasconcelos ◽  
Geert van Loo ◽  

Lethal toxin (LeTx)-mediated killing of myeloid cells is essential for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, to establish systemic infection and induce lethal anthrax. The “LeTx-sensitive” NLRP1b inflammasome of BALB/c and 129S macrophages swiftly responds to LeTx intoxication with pyroptosis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. However, human NLRP1 is nonresponsive to LeTx, prompting us to investigate B. anthracis host–pathogen interactions in C57BL/6J (B6) macrophages and mice that also lack a LeTx-sensitive Nlrp1b allele. Unexpectedly, we found that LeTx intoxication and live B. anthracis infection of B6 macrophages elicited robust secretion of IL-1β, which critically relied on the NLRP3 inflammasome. TNF signaling through both TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and TNF-R2 were required for B. anthracis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which was further controlled by RIPK1 kinase activity and LeTx-mediated proteolytic inactivation of MAP kinase signaling. In addition to activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, LeTx-induced MAPKK inactivation and TNF production sensitized B. anthracis-infected macrophages to robust RIPK1- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis. In agreement, purified LeTx triggered RIPK1 kinase activity- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis only in macrophages primed with TNF or following engagement of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptors. Consistently, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of RIPK1 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis of LeTx-intoxicated and B. anthracis-infected macrophages. Caspase-8/RIPK3-deficient mice were significantly protected from B. anthracis-induced lethality, demonstrating the in vivo pathophysiological relevance of this cytotoxic mechanism. Collectively, these results establish TNF- and RIPK1 kinase activity–dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and macrophage apoptosis as key host–pathogen mechanisms in lethal anthrax.

2022 ◽  
Peter S Back ◽  
William J O'Shaughnessy ◽  
Andy S Moon ◽  
Pravin S Dewangan ◽  
Michael L Reese ◽  

The Toxoplasma inner membrane complex (IMC) is a specialized organelle that is crucial for the parasite to establish an intracellular lifestyle and ultimately cause disease. The IMC is composed of both membrane and cytoskeletal components, further delineated into the apical cap, body, and basal subcompartments. The apical cap cytoskeleton was recently demonstrated to govern the stability of the apical complex, which controls parasite motility, invasion, and egress. While this role was determined by individually assessing the apical cap proteins AC9, AC10, and the MAP kinase ERK7, how the three proteins collaborate to stabilize the apical complex is unknown. In this study, we use a combination of deletion analyses and yeast-2-hybrid experiments to establish that these proteins form an essential complex in the apical cap. We show that AC10 is a foundational component of the AC10:AC9:ERK7 complex and demonstrate that the interactions among them are critical to maintain the apical complex. Importantly, we identify multiple independent regions of pairwise interaction between each of the three proteins, suggesting that the AC9:AC10:ERK7 complex is organized by multivalent interactions. Together, these data support a model in which multiple interacting domains enable the oligomerization of the AC9:AC10:ERK7 complex and its assembly into the cytoskeletal IMC, which serves as a structural scaffold that concentrates ERK7 kinase activity in the apical cap.

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