Autosomal dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic kidney disease. It causes progressive renal failure, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension, all of which are strictly linked to oxidative stress (OxSt). Treatment with tolvaptan is known to slow the renal deterioration rate, but not all the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect are well-established. We evaluated the OxSt state in untreated ADPKD patients compared to that in tolvaptan-treated ADPKD patients and healthy subjects. OxSt was assessed in nine patients for each group in terms of mononuclear cell p22phox protein expression, NADPH oxidase key subunit, MYPT-1 phosphorylation state, marker of Rho kinase activity (Western blot) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, induced and protective against OxSt (ELISA). p22phox protein expression was higher in untreated ADPKD patients compared to treated patients and controls: 1.42 ± 0.11 vs. 0.86 ± 0.15 d.u., p = 0.015, vs. 0.53 ± 0.11 d.u., p < 0.001, respectively. The same was observed for phosphorylated MYPT-1: 0.96 ± 0.28 vs. 0.68 ± 0.09 d.u., p = 0.013 and vs. 0.47 ± 0.13 d.u., p < 0.001, respectively, while the HO-1 expression of untreated patients was significantly lower compared to that of treated patients and controls: 5.33 ± 3.34 vs. 2.08 ± 0.79 ng/mL, p = 0.012, vs. 1.97 ± 1.22 ng/mL, p = 0.012, respectively. Tolvaptan-treated ADPKD patients have reduced OxSt levels compared to untreated patients. This effect may contribute to the slowing of renal function loss observed with tolvaptan treatment.