Barleria terminalis Nees and Calacanthus grandiflorus (Dalzell) Radlk. are endemic medicinal plants of the Western Ghats of India. The aim of the present research work was to investigate phytochemical profile, potent bioactives using RP-HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS and to evaluate their bioactivities. Acetone was found to be the best extraction medium for separating phytochemicals. Similarly, acetone and methanol extracts exhibited potential antioxidant properties. Ethanol extract of B. terminalis stem showed potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (89.10 ± 0.26%) inhibitory activity. Inhibition of α-amylase (36.96 ± 2.96%) activity was observed the best in ethanol extract of B. terminalis leaves and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (94.33 ± 0.73%) in ethanol extract of C. grandiflorus stem. RP-HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of several phenolic compounds (gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and coumaric acid) and phenylethanoid glycoside (verbascoside). The highest phenolics content were observed in B. terminalis (GA (4.17 ± 0.002), HBA (3.88 ± 0.001), VA (4.54 ± 0.001), CHLA (0.55 ± 0.004) mg/g DW, respectively). Similarly, LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of phenolics, glycosides, terpenes, steroids, fatty acids, etc. Moreover, positive correlation between studied phytochemicals and antioxidants was observed in principal component analysis. Based on the present investigation, we conclude that B. terminalis and C. grandiflorus can be further explored for their active principles particularly, phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoids and their use in drug industry for pharmaceutical purposes.
Chronic use of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is limited by serious side effects, such as tolerance and endothelial dysfunction of coronary and resistance arteries. Although GTN is used as a drug since more than 130 years, the mechanisms of the vasodilatory effects and of tolerance development to organic nitrates are still incompletely elucidated. New synthesized organic nitrates with and without antioxidant properties were characterized for their ex vivo tolerance profile, in order to investigate the oxidative stress hypothesis of nitrate tolerance. The organic nitrates studied showed different vasodilation and tolerance profiles, probably due to the ability or inability of the compounds to interact with the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme (ALDH-2) involved in bioactivation. Furthermore, nitrooxy derivatives endowed with antioxidant properties did not determine the onset of tolerance, even if bioactivated by ALDH-2. The results of this study could be further evidence of the involvement of ALDH-2 in the development of nitrate tolerance. Moreover, the behavior of organic nitrates with antioxidant properties supports the hypothesis of the involvement of ROS in inactivating ALDH-2.
Zinc could be a target nutrient in the prevention of physical impairment and frailty in older adults due to its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties. However, prospective studies evaluating this inquiry are scarce. Thus, we aimed to assess the association between zinc intake and impaired lower-extremity function (ILEF) and frailty among community-dwelling older adults.
We examined 2,963 adults aged ≥60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. At baseline (2008–2010) and subsequent follow-up (2012), zinc intake (mg/d) was estimated with a validated computerized face-to-face diet history and adjusted for total energy intake. From 2012 to 2017, the occurrence of ILEF was ascertained with the Short Physical Performance Battery, and of frailty according to the Fried phenotype criteria. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for relevant confounders, including lifestyle, comorbidity, and dietary factors.
During follow-up, we identified 515 incident cases of ILEF and 241 of frailty. Compared to participants in the lowest tertile of zinc intake (3.99–8.36 mg/d), those in the highest tertile (9.51–21.2 mg/d) had a lower risk of ILEF [fully-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.75 (0.58–0.97); p for trend: 0.03] and of frailty [0.63 (0.44–0.92); p for trend: 0.02]. No differences in the association were seen by strata of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.
Higher zinc intake was prospectively associated with a lower risk of ILEF and frailty among older adults, suggesting that adequate zinc intake, that can be achieved through a healthy diet, may help preserve physical function and reduce the progression to frailty.
The work is aimed at phytochemical characterization and In Vitro evaluation of antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytotoxicity of purified extracts from three rupturewort (Herniaria L.) species, i.e., Herniaria glabra (HG), H. polygama (HP), and H. incana herb (HIh). The total phenolic content established in the purified extracts (PEs) of HIh, HP, and HG was 29.6, 24.0, and 13.0%, respectively. Thirty-eight non-saponin metabolites were identified using LC-HR-QTOF-ESI-MS; however, only 9 were common for the studied Herniaria species. The most abundant phenolic compound in HG-PE was narcissin (7.4%), HP-PE shared 3 major constituents, namely cis-2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid 2-O-β-glucoside (cis-GMCA, 5.8%), narcissin (5.4%), and rutin (5.3%). Almost half of HIh phenolic content (14.7%) belonged to oxytroflavoside A (7-O-methylkaempferol-3-O-[3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-(1→6)]-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®2)]-β-galactopyranoside). Antioxidant properties of the Herniaria PEs were evaluated employing an experimental model of human blood plasma, exposed to the peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress. The assays demonstrated significant reduction of oxidative damage to protein and lipid plasma components (estimated by measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, protein thiol groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and moderate protection of its non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. Anti-inflammatory properties of the Herniaria PEs were evaluated In Vitro as inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) and concanavalin A-induced inflammatory response of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). None of the studied plants showed inhibitory effects on COXs but all purified extracts partly reduced the release of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from PBMCs, which suggested their prospective ability to up-regulate inflammatory response of the cells. The purified extract from H. glabra turned out to be the most efficient suppressor of PBMCs’ inflammatory response. Additionally, cytotoxicity of purified Herniaria extracts on PBMCs was ruled out based on In Vitro studies.
Since their discovery in 2004, carbon dots have attracted strong interest in the scientific community due to their characteristic properties, particularly their luminescence and their ease of synthesis and derivatization. Carbon dots can be obtained from different carbon sources, including natural products, resulting in a so-called ’green synthesis’. In this work, we obtain carbon dots from tomato juice in order to obtain nanoparticles with the antioxidant capabilities of the natural antioxidants present in that fruit. The obtained material is characterized regarding nanoparticle size distribution, morphology, surface functional groups and optic properties. Antioxidant properties are also evaluated through the DPPH method and their cytotoxicity is checked against human dermal fibroblast and A549 cell-lines. The results indicate that carbon dots obtained from tomato have a higher antioxidant power than other already-published antioxidant carbon dots. The bandgap of the synthesized materials was also estimated and coherent with the literature values. Moreover, carbon dots obtained from tomato juice are barely toxic for healthy cells up to 72 h, while they induce a certain cytotoxicity in A549 lung carcinoma cells.