systemic infection
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Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Sara Sablone ◽  
Elpiniki Lagouvardou ◽  
Gerardo Cazzato ◽  
Francesco Carravetta ◽  
Roberto Maselli ◽  

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an infection characterized by necrosis of the superficial muscle fascia and surrounding soft tissues. It usually occurs following skin breaches from penetrating traumas or high-degree burns. Less frequently, it could be related to major abdominal surgery. However, no cases of thigh NF after minor abdominal procedures have ever been reported. A previously healthy 59-year-old male patient underwent a colonoscopic polypectomy. After the procedure, the patient developed an increasing right groin pain. The CT scan showed a gas collection in the right retroperitoneum space and in the right thigh soft tissues. Thus, a right colon perforation was hypothesized, and the patient was moved to the nearest surgery department and underwent a right hemicolectomy procedure. During surgery, the right thigh was also incised and drained, with gas and pus leakage. Nevertheless, the right lower limb continued to swell, and signs of systemic infection appeared. Afterward, clinical conditions continued to worsen despite the drainage of the thigh and antibiotic therapy, and the patient died of septic shock after just two days. This case shows that, although rare, lower limb NF should be considered among the causes of early post-operative local painful symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Ronald S Flannagan ◽  
Jeremy R Brozyna ◽  
Brijesh Kumar ◽  
Lea A Adolf ◽  
Jeffrey J Power ◽  

Acquisition of iron underpins the ability of pathogens to cause disease and Staphylococcus lugdunensis has increasingly been recognized as a pathogen that can cause serious infection. In this study, we sought to address the knowledge gap that exists regarding the iron acquisition mechanisms employed by S. lugdunensis, especially during infection of the mammalian host. Here we show that S. lugdunensis utilizes diverse genome encoded iron acquisition mechanisms to satisfy its need for this nutrient. Indeed, S. lugdunensis can usurp hydroxamate siderophores, and staphyloferrin A and B from S. aureus, using the fhuC ATPase-encoding gene. Acquisition of catechol siderophores and catecholamine stress hormones necessitates the presence of the sst-1 transporter-encoding locus, but not the sst-2 locus. Iron-dependent growth in acidic culture conditions necessitates the feoAB locus. Heme iron is acquired via expression of the iron-regulated surface determinant (isd) locus. During systemic infection of mice we demonstrate that while S. lugdunensis does not cause overt illness, it does colonize and proliferate to high numbers in the kidneys. By combining mutations in the various iron acquisition loci, we further demonstrate that only a strain mutated for all of isd, fhuC, sst-1, and feo, versus combination mutants carrying wild type copies of any one of those loci, was attenuated in its ability to proliferate to high numbers in kidneys. Taken together our data reveal that S. lugdunensis requires a repertoire of both heme and non-heme iron acquisition mechanisms to proliferate during systemic infection of mammals

2022 ◽  
Sonalika Mahajan ◽  
Karikalan Mathesh ◽  
Vishal Chander ◽  
Abhijit M Pawde ◽  
G Saikumar ◽  

We report patho-morphological and virological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in naturally infected, free ranging Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). Whole genome sequence analysis confirmed infection of Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, possibly spill over from humans, but the case was detected when infection level had dropped significantly in human population. This report underlines the need for intensive screening of wild animals for keeping track of the virus evolution and development of carrier status of SARS-CoV-2 among wildlife species.

2022 ◽  
pp. 263394472110610
Sruti P. Nair ◽  
Aravind Reghukumar ◽  
Athul Gurudas ◽  
Kiran Kumar V. Sasidharan ◽  
Sreekumar Sivadasan

Aneurysm of the extracranial carotid artery is a rare disease, mycotic pseudoaneurysms being even less common. They are a life-threatening complication of systemic infection and atherosclerosis. Immunocompromised people, including patients with HIV, uncontrolled diabetes melltus, those on immunosuppressants like high-dose steroids, and chemotherapy, are at a higher risk for development of mycotic pseudoaneurysms. Due to the high risk of potential complications like rupture and thromboembolic events, mycotic aneurysms always require surgical management. Early detection followed by restoration of blood flow is critical to minimize a fatal outcome. Here we report the case of a 52-year-old man with a past history of hypertension and dyslipidemia who presented with a pulsatile painful neck swelling. On evaluation, the patient was diagnosed to have Salmonella typhi bacteremia, HIV infection, and a mycotic aneurysm of the left common carotid artery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-42
Sangita Mithun ◽  
Syed Abul Hassan Md Abdullah ◽  
SM Nurul Irfan

Background: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves various organs of the body causing several biochemical changes which plays an essential role in estimating the patients’ condition and prognosis, directing treatment, and even evaluating the curative effects. The present study aimed to assess the biochemical changes among the COVID-19 patients during early pandemic. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Dhaka among purposively selected 237 confirm COVID-19 cases. Data were collected through face to face interview and review of medical records using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The study was conducted in the Combined Military Hospital Dhaka from 15 April 2020 to 31 May 2020 Results: Highest number of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years (37.1%) with male predominance (83.1%). About 95.6% were Muslim and 58.6% were educated up to secondary level. About 87.8% had contact with a confirmed case and having 47.7%, 37.2%, 15.1% cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory comorbidities respectively. Fever (34.6%) was the most common presenting symptoms followed by cough (22.9%), sore throat (10.6%). Neutrophilia observed in 26.16%, lymphopenia in 20.7%, thrombocytopenia in 14.3% cases, 30.0% with positive D-dimer test, 22.4% either sepsis or systemic infection in procalcitonin estimation, 28.3% with increased ferritin, 28.7% with positive C reactive protein, 21.1% with increased LDH. Chi-square analysis revealed a statistically significant association between cardiovascular and endocrine diseases with several biochemical changes (p<0.05). Conclusion: Early identification of various biochemical changes would help the physician for appropriate assessment and management. JOPSOM 2021; 40(1): 34-42

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Mamadou Thiam ◽  
Astrid Lissette Barreto Sánchez ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Jie Wen ◽  
Guiping Zhao ◽  

Salmonella causes significant economic loss to the poultry industry and represents a real threat to human health. The region of difference 21 (ROD21) pathogenicity island removal is a genetic mechanism by which Salmonellaenteritidis (SE) invades the intestinal epithelium and induces systemic infection in mice. The heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio reflects the chicken’s robustness and immune system status. The H/L ratio is considered a disease resistance trait, and it could be used as a marker for selecting Salmonella resistance in live chickens. However, the association of the H/L ratio with Salmonella resistance and the inflammatory response remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the kinetics of ROD21 excision in the intestine and immune organs of chickens is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the bacterial load, the ROD21 excision, the IL-1β, IL-8, and INF-γ blood serum concentration kinetics, and the association with the H/L ratio in chicken at 1, 3, 7, and 21 days post-SE infection. The results showed a significant correlation between the H/L ratio and the bacterial load in the ileum and caecum at 7 dpi. The ROD21 pathogenicity island absolute and relative excision in the caecum were positively correlated at 1 dpi but negatively correlated at 7 dpi with the H/L ratio. However, in the liver, we found the opposite tendency. The association of the H/L ratio with IL-1β, IL-8, and INF-γ blood serum concentrations showed that a low H/L ratio is correlated with increased IL-1β and INF-γ at 21 dpi. This study confirmed that the H/L ratio is associated with robustness and Salmonella-resistance in chicken. The methodology used in this study can separate individuals into susceptible and resistant and can help in the selection and breeding of Salmonella-resistant chickens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2116415119
Filip Van Hauwermeiren ◽  
Nina Van Opdenbosch ◽  
Hanne Van Gorp ◽  
Nathalia de Vasconcelos ◽  
Geert van Loo ◽  

Lethal toxin (LeTx)-mediated killing of myeloid cells is essential for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, to establish systemic infection and induce lethal anthrax. The “LeTx-sensitive” NLRP1b inflammasome of BALB/c and 129S macrophages swiftly responds to LeTx intoxication with pyroptosis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. However, human NLRP1 is nonresponsive to LeTx, prompting us to investigate B. anthracis host–pathogen interactions in C57BL/6J (B6) macrophages and mice that also lack a LeTx-sensitive Nlrp1b allele. Unexpectedly, we found that LeTx intoxication and live B. anthracis infection of B6 macrophages elicited robust secretion of IL-1β, which critically relied on the NLRP3 inflammasome. TNF signaling through both TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and TNF-R2 were required for B. anthracis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which was further controlled by RIPK1 kinase activity and LeTx-mediated proteolytic inactivation of MAP kinase signaling. In addition to activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, LeTx-induced MAPKK inactivation and TNF production sensitized B. anthracis-infected macrophages to robust RIPK1- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis. In agreement, purified LeTx triggered RIPK1 kinase activity- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis only in macrophages primed with TNF or following engagement of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptors. Consistently, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of RIPK1 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis of LeTx-intoxicated and B. anthracis-infected macrophages. Caspase-8/RIPK3-deficient mice were significantly protected from B. anthracis-induced lethality, demonstrating the in vivo pathophysiological relevance of this cytotoxic mechanism. Collectively, these results establish TNF- and RIPK1 kinase activity–dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and macrophage apoptosis as key host–pathogen mechanisms in lethal anthrax.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Joe K. Chouhan ◽  
Ursula Püntener ◽  
Steven G. Booth ◽  
Jessica L. Teeling

Bacterial infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, and particularly in individuals with a neurodegenerative disease. Experimental models of neurodegeneration have shown that LPS-induced systemic inflammation increases neuronal damage, a process thought to be mediated by activation of “primed” microglia. The effects of a real systemic bacterial infection on the innate immune cells in the brain and neuronal networks are less well described, and therefore, in this study we use the ME7 prion model to investigate the alterations in microglia activation and phenotype and synaptic markers in response to a low grade, live bacterial infection. Mice with or without a pre-existing ME7 prion-induced neurodegenerative disease were given a single systemic injection of live Salmonella typhimurium at early or mid-stage of disease progression. Immune activation markers CD11b and MHCII and pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed 4 weeks post-infection. Systemic infection with S. typhimurium resulted in an exaggerated inflammatory response when compared to ME7 prion mice treated with saline. These changes to inflammatory markers were most pronounced at mid-stage disease. Analysis of synaptic markers in ME7 prion mice revealed a significant reduction of genes that are associated with early response in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix structure and post-synaptic density, but no further reduction following systemic infection. In contrast, analysis of activity-related neuronal receptors involved in development of learning and memory, such as Grm1 and Grin2a, showed a significant decrease in response to systemic bacterial challenge. These changes were observed early in the disease progression and associated with reduced burrowing activity. The exaggerated innate immune activation and altered expression of genes linked to synaptic plasticity may contribute to the onset and/or progression of neurodegeneration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Laila Alsuwaidi ◽  
Saba Al Heialy ◽  
Nahid Shaikh ◽  
Firas Al Najjar ◽  
Rania Seliem ◽  

Abstract Background The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmittable virus which causes the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Monocyte distribution width (MDW) is an in-vitro hematological parameter which describes the changes in monocyte size distribution and can indicate progression from localized infection to systemic infection. In this study we evaluated the correlation between the laboratory parameters and available clinical data in different quartiles of MDW to predict the progression and severity of COVID-19 infection. Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical data collected in the Emergency Department of Rashid Hospital Trauma Center-DHA from adult individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 between January and June 2020. The patients (n = 2454) were assigned into quartiles based on their MDW value on admission. The four groups were analyzed to determine if MDW was an indicator to identify patients who are at increased risk for progression to sepsis. Results Our data showed a significant positive correlation between MDW and various laboratory parameters associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study also revealed that MDW ≥ 24.685 has a strong correlation with poor prognosis of COVID-19. Conclusions Monitoring of monocytes provides a window into the systemic inflammation caused by infection and can aid in evaluating the progression and severity of COVID-19 infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Priya Shukla ◽  
Abby Mandalla ◽  
Matthew J. Elrick ◽  
Arun Venkatesan

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a devastating neurologic condition that can arise following a variety of systemic infections, including influenza and SARS-CoV-2. Affected individuals typically present with rapid changes in consciousness, focal neurological deficits, and seizures. Neuroimaging reveals symmetric, bilateral deep gray matter lesions, often involving the thalami, with evidence of necrosis and/or hemorrhage. The clinical and radiologic picture must be distinguished from direct infection of the central nervous system by some viruses, and from metabolic and mitochondrial disorders. Outcomes following ANE are poor overall and worse in those with brainstem involvement. Specific management is often directed toward modulating immune responses given the potential role of systemic inflammation and cytokine storm in potentiating neurologic injury in ANE, though benefits of such approaches remain unclear. The finding that many patients have mutations in the nucleoporin gene RANBP2, which encodes a multifunctional protein that plays a key role in nucleocytoplasmic transport, may allow for the development of disease models that provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms and novel therapeutic approaches.

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