conduction block
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Sok-Sithikun Bun ◽  
Florian Asarisi ◽  
Nathan Heme ◽  
Fabien Squara ◽  
Didier Scarlatti ◽  

Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB.

Rujie Zheng ◽  
Yingxue Dong ◽  
Shengjie Wu ◽  
Lan Su ◽  
Dongdong Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Luca Mesin ◽  
Edoardo Lingua ◽  
Dario Cocito

A deconvolution method is proposed for conduction block (CB) estimation based on two compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) elicited by stimulating a nerve proximal and distal to the region in which the block is suspected. It estimates the time delay distributions by CMAPs deconvolution, from which CB is computed. The slow afterwave (SAW) is included to describe the motor unit potential, as it gives an important contribution in case of the large temporal dispersion (TD) often found in patients. The method is tested on experimental signals obtained from both healthy subjects and pathological patients, with either Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) or Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN). The new technique outperforms the clinical methods (based on amplitude and area of CMAPs) and a previous state-of-the-art deconvolution approach. It compensates phase cancellations, allowing to discriminate among CB and TD: estimated by the methods of amplitude, area and deconvolution, CB showed a correlation with TD equal to 39.3%, 29.5% and 8.2%, respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease of percentage reconstruction errors of the CMAPs with respect to the previous deconvolution approach is obtained (from a mean/median of 19.1%/16.7% to 11.7%/11.2%). Therefore, the new method is able to discriminate between CB and TD (overcoming the important limitation of clinical approaches) and can approximate patients’ CMAPs better than the previous deconvolution algorithm. Then, it appears to be promising for the diagnosis of demyelinating polyneuropathies, to be further tested in the future in a prospective clinical trial.

2021 ◽  
Brett Baggett ◽  
Kevin Murphy ◽  
Elif Sengun ◽  
Eric Mi ◽  
Yueming Cao ◽  

Progressive tissue remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) promotes cardiac arrhythmias. This process is well studied in young animals, but little is known about pro-arrhythmic changes in aged animals. Senescent cells accumulate with age and accelerate age-associated diseases. Senescent cells interfere with cardiac function and outcome post-MI with age, but studies have not been performed in large animals, and the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of senescence in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and arrhythmogenesis in young and aged infarcted rabbits. Aged rabbits exhibited increased peri-procedural mortality and arrhythmogenic electrophysiological remodeling at the infarct border zone (IBZ) compared to young rabbits. Studies of the aged infarct zone revealed persistent myofibroblast senescence and increased inflammatory signaling over a twelve-week timecourse. Senescent IBZ myofibroblasts in aged rabbits appear to be coupled to myocytes, and our computational modeling showed that senescent myofibroblast-cardiomyocyte coupling prolongs action potential duration (APD) and facilitates conduction block permissive of arrhythmias. Aged infarcted human ventricles show levels of senescence consistent with aged rabbits, and senescent myofibroblasts also couple to IBZ myocytes. Our findings suggest that senolytic drugs may mitigate arrhythmias post-MI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5536
Lianne N. van Staveren ◽  
Willemijn F. B. van der Does ◽  
Annejet Heida ◽  
Yannick J. H. J. Taverne ◽  
Ad J. J. C. Bogers ◽  

We investigated whether patterns of activation at Bachmann’s bundle are related to AF inducibility. Epicardial mapping of Bachmann’s bundle during sinus rhythm was performed prior to cardiac surgery (192 electrodes, interelectrode distances: 2 mm). Compared to non-inducible patients (N = 20), patients with inducible AF (N = 34) had longer lines of conduction block (18(2–164) mm vs. 6(2–28) mm, p = 0.048), prolonged total activation time (55(28–143) ms vs. 46(24–73) ms, p = 0.012), multiple wavefronts entering Bachmann’s bundle more frequently (64% vs. 37%, p = 0.046) and more often areas of simultaneous activation (conduction velocity > 1.7 m/s, 45% vs. 16%, p = 0.038). These observations further support a relation between conduction abnormalities at Bachmann’s bundle and AF inducibility. The next step is to examine whether Bachmann’s bundle activation patterns can also be used to identify patients who will develop AF after cardiac surgery during both short- and long-term follow-up.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 116-118
Stacey Y. Guo ◽  
Alexandra O. Duffy ◽  
Ricardo A. Maselli ◽  
Ge Xiong

Heart Rhythm ◽  
2021 ◽  
Michel Haïssaguerre ◽  
Koonlawee Nademanee ◽  
Frédéric Sacher ◽  
Ghassen Cheniti ◽  
Mélèze Hocini ◽  

Mikkel Giehm-Reese ◽  
Mads Kronborg ◽  
Peter Lukac ◽  
Steen Kristiansen ◽  
Henrik Kjærulf Jensen ◽  

Background: Contact force (CF) guided catheter ablation (CA) is a novel technology developed to improve efficacy and reduce complications. In a randomised controlled trial (RCT), we previously documented that after three months, rate of persistent conduction block was similar with and without using CF while performing CA for typical atrial flutter (AFL). Clinical effect of CF on recurrent arrhythmia is unknown. Objective: To study recurrent atrial arrhythmia during 12-months follow-up in a RCT investigating whether CF-guided CA for typical AFL is superior to CF-blinded CA. Method: Patients were randomized 1:1 to CA guided by CF (intervention group) or blinded to CF (control group). After 12 months, patients attended clinical check-up preceded by a 5-day ambulatory Holter monitor recording. Primary outcome was any recurrent atrial arrhythmia ≥30 seconds within 12 months, symptomatic or asymptomatic and documented in 12-lead ECG or Holter monitor recording. We did intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Results: We included and randomized 156 patients, four patients withdrew consent and two died during follow-up. Thus, 150 patients were included in ITT-analysis, in which recurrent arrhythmia was detected in 47 (31%) patients, 25 in the intervention group and 22 in the control group (p = 0.25). Atrial fibrillation was detected in 38 patients (18 versus 20 patients), and AFL in the remaining 9 patients (7 versus 2 patients). Conclusion: Contact force guided ablation for typical atrial flutter does not reduce recurrent atrial arrhythmia after 12-months follow-up as compared with ablation blinded for contact force.

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