left ventricular ejection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Sok-Sithikun Bun ◽  
Florian Asarisi ◽  
Nathan Heme ◽  
Fabien Squara ◽  
Didier Scarlatti ◽  

Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB.

2022 ◽  
Jakob Ledwoch ◽  
Jana Kraxenberger ◽  
Anna Krauth ◽  
Alisa Schneider ◽  
Katharina Leidgschwendner ◽  

AbstractHigh-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) is increasingly used for prognostication in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, uncertainty exists whether hs-TnT shows comparable prognostic performance in patients with heart failure and different classes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF). The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-day mortality depending on the presence of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), HF with mid-range LV-EF (HFmrEF) and HF with reduced LV-EF (HFrEF) in patients with acutely decompensated HF. Patients admitted to our institution due to AHF were retrospectively included. Clinical information was gathered from electronic and paper-based patient charts. Patients with myocardial infarction were excluded. A total of 847 patients were enrolled into the present study. A significant association was found between HF groups and hs-TnT (regression coefficient -0.018 for HFpEF vs. HFmrEF/HFrEF; p = 0.02). The area under the curve (AUC) of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-mortality was significantly lower in patients with HFpEF (AUC 0.61) than those with HFmrEF (AUC 0.80; p = 0.01) and HFrEF (AUC 0.73; p = 0.04). Hs-TnT was not independently associated with 30-day outcome in the HFpEF group (OR 1.48 [95%-CI 0.89–2.46]; p = 0.13) in contrast to the HFmrEF group (OR 4.53 [95%-CI 1.85–11.1]; p < 0.001) and HFrEF group (OR 2.58 [95%-CI 1.57–4.23]; p < 0.001). Prognostic accuracy of hs-TnT in patients hospitalized for AHF regarding 30-day mortality is significantly lower in patients with HFpEF compared to those with HFmrEF and HFrEF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Boyang Xiang ◽  
Zongliang Yu ◽  
Xiang Zhou

Background: The medical treatments of chronic heart failure have made remarkable progress in recent years. It is crucial to determine the optimal drug combination based on current evidence.Methods: A search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases was conducted for studies on angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (BBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and ivabradine (IVA) between 1987 and 2021. The network meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of drug therapies in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).Results: Forty-eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which overall included 68,074 patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%, were identified and included in the network meta-analysis. The efficacies of 13 intervention classes, including monotherapies or combinations of ACEI, ARB, ARNI, BB, MRA, SGLT2i, IVA, and placebo, on hospitalization for HF, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were compared. Among the 13 included interventions, ARNI+BB+MRA, SGLT2i+ACEI+BB+MRA, and IVA+ACEI+BB+MRA were found to be best in terms of all three outcomes. Compared with placebo, these three drug combinations were associated with significant reductions in the risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for HF.Conclusions: ARNI+BB+MRA, SGLT2i+ACEI+BB+MRA, and IVA+ACEI+BB+MRA were the top three therapies for patients with HFrEF. The increasing use of combinations of conventional and novel drugs contributed to progressive reductions in hospitalization and mortality in patients with HFrEF.

Ahmed Haider ◽  
Susan Bengs ◽  
Angela Portmann ◽  
Alexia Rossi ◽  
Hazem Ahmed ◽  

Abstract Background A growing body of evidence highlights sex differences in the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular imaging modalities. Nonetheless, the role of sex hormones in modulating myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) is currently unclear. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of female and male sex hormones on myocardial perfusion and CFR. Methods Rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) was conducted by small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]flurpiridaz in a total of 56 mice (7–8 months old) including gonadectomized (Gx) and sham-operated males and females, respectively. Myocardial [18F]flurpiridaz uptake (% injected dose per mL, % ID/mL) was used as a surrogate for myocardial perfusion at rest and following intravenous regadenoson injection, as previously reported. Apparent coronary flow reserve (CFRApp) was calculated as the ratio of stress and rest myocardial perfusion. Left ventricular (LV) morphology and function were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Results Orchiectomy resulted in a significant decrease of resting myocardial perfusion (Gx vs. sham, 19.4 ± 1.0 vs. 22.2 ± 0.7 % ID/mL, p = 0.034), while myocardial perfusion at stress remained unchanged (Gx vs. sham, 27.5 ± 1.2 vs. 27.3 ± 1.2 % ID/mL, p = 0.896). Accordingly, CFRApp was substantially higher in orchiectomized males (Gx vs. sham, 1.43 ± 0.04 vs. 1.23 ± 0.05, p = 0.004), and low serum testosterone levels were linked to a blunted resting myocardial perfusion (r = 0.438, p = 0.020) as well as an enhanced CFRApp (r = −0.500, p = 0.007). In contrast, oophorectomy did not affect myocardial perfusion in females. Of note, orchiectomized males showed a reduced LV mass, stroke volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on CMR, while no such effects were observed in oophorectomized females. Conclusion Our experimental data in mice indicate that sex differences in myocardial perfusion are primarily driven by testosterone. Given the diagnostic importance of PET-MPI in clinical routine, further studies are warranted to determine whether testosterone levels affect the interpretation of myocardial perfusion findings in patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 401
Ariel Banai ◽  
Dana Levit ◽  
Samuel Morgan ◽  
Itamar Loewenstein ◽  
Ilan Merdler ◽  

C-reactive protein velocity (CRPv), defined as the change in wide-range CRP concentration divided by time, is an inflammatory biomarker associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous intervention (PCI). However, data regarding CRPv association with echocardiographic parameters assessing left ventricular systolic and diastolic function is lacking. Echocardiographic parameters and CRPv values were analyzed using a cohort of 1059 patients admitted with STEMI and treated with primary PCI. Patients were stratified into tertiles according to their CRPv. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate CRPv optimal cut-off values for the prediction of severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Patients with high CRPv tertiles had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (49% vs. 46% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.001). CRPv was found to independently predict LVEF ≤ 35% (HR 1.3 CI 95% 1.21–1.4; p < 0.001) and grade III diastolic dysfunction (HR 1.16 CI 95% 11.02–1.31; p = 0.02). CRPv exhibited a better diagnostic profile for severe systolic dysfunction as compared to CRP (area under the curve 0.734 ± 0.02 vs. 0.608 ± 0.02). In conclusion, For STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, CRPv is a marker of both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Further larger studies are needed to support this finding.

Cheney Jianlin Wong ◽  
Jonathan Yap ◽  
Fei Gao ◽  
Yee How Lau ◽  
Weiting Huang ◽  

Background: MI with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is caused by a heterogenous group of conditions with clinically significant sequelae. Aim: This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and prognosis of MINOCA with MI with obstructive coronary artery disease (MICAD). Methods: Data on patients with a first presentation of MI between 2011 and 2014 were extracted from the Singapore Cardiac Longitudinal Outcomes Database and patients were classified as having either MINOCA or MICAD. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality (ACM) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of ACM, recurrent MI, heart failure hospitalisation and stroke. Results: Of the 4,124 patients who were included in this study, 159 (3.9%) were diagnosed with MINOCA. They were more likely to be women, present with a non-ST-elevation MI, have a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and less likely to have diabetes, previous stroke or smoking history. Over a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, MINOCA patients had a lower incidence of ACM (10.1% versus 16.5%) and MACE (20.8% versus 35.5%) compared with MICAD. On multivariable analysis, patients with MINOCA had a lower risk of ACM (HR 0.42; 95% CI [0.21–0.82]) and MACE (HR 0.42; 95% CI [0.26–0.69]). Within the MINOCA group, older age, higher creatinine, a ST-elevation MI presentation, and the absence of antiplatelet use predicted ACM and MACE. Conclusion: While patients with MINOCA had better clinical outcomes compared with MICAD patients, MINOCA is not a benign entity, with one in five patients experiencing an adverse cardiovascular event in the long term.

Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-319605
Andreas B Gevaert ◽  
Rachna Kataria ◽  
Faiez Zannad ◽  
Andrew J Sauer ◽  
Kevin Damman ◽  

It is estimated that half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Yet this form of HF remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Differentiating HFpEF from other causes of dyspnoea may require advanced diagnostic methods, such as exercise echocardiography, invasive haemodynamics and investigations for ‘HFpEF mimickers’. While the classification of HF has relied heavily on cut-points in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), recent evidence points towards a gradual shift in underlying mechanisms, phenotypes and response to therapies as LVEF increases. For example, among patients with HF, the proportion of hospitalisations and deaths due to cardiac causes decreases as LVEF increases. Medication classes that are efficacious in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been less so at higher LVEF ranges, decreasing the risk of HF hospitalisation but not cardiovascular or all-cause death in HFpEF. These observations reflect the burden of non-cardiac comorbidities as LVEF increases and highlight the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, both cardiac and non-cardiac, underpinning HFpEF. Treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduces the risk of composite cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in HF hospitalisations; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors result in smaller reductions in HF hospitalisations among patients with HFpEF. Comprehensive management of HFpEF includes exercise as well as treatment of risk factors and comorbidities. Classification based on phenotypes may facilitate a more targeted approach to treatment than LVEF categorisation, which sets arbitrary cut-points when LVEF is a continuum. This narrative review summarises the pathophysiology, diagnosis, classification and management of patients with HFpEF.

2022 ◽  
Ruimeng Tian ◽  
Jia Feng ◽  
Wenjuan Qin ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Zijing Zhai ◽  

Abstract Objective: Bying comparing the correlation between three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) and three-dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), to explore the 3D-STE to evaluate the left ventricle of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (acute STEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) following routine treatment with Tongxinluo drugs. Methods: Altogether, 60 patients with acute STEMI and 30 healthy adults were selected, and the patients were randomly divided into the routine group and the Tongxinluo group, with 30 people in each group. All patients underwent PCI, and routine echocardiography and 3D-STE assessments were performed for each group 72 h after PCI and 12 months after PCI to obtain the following left ventricular related functional parameters: left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), end-ventricular septal end-diastolic thickness (IVSD), left ventricular posterior wall end-diastolic thickness (LVPWD), left ventricular short axis shortening fraction (LVFS), Simpson’s left ventricular ejection fraction (Simpson’s LVEF), three-dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction (3D-LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), left ventricular twist angle (LVtw), Torsion (Tor), peak strain dispersion (PSD), and myocardial comprehensive index (MCI). The same parameters were collected in the control group, the results were compared, and the correlation analysis between GCS, GLS, LVtw, Tor, and MCIF, and 3D-LVE was performed. Results: Compared with the control group, the LVFS, LVEF (Simpson), 3D-LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor, and MCI significantly decreased in patients with STEMI after PCI, while the PSD significantly increased ( P <0.05). Compared with the values 72 h after PCI, the LVEDD, LVFS, LVEF (Simpson), 3D-LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor, and MCI significantly increased at 12 m after PCI, while PSD significantly decreased ( P <0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups at 72 h after PCI ( P >0.05). At 12 months after PCI, the LVEF, GLS, GCS, LVtw, Tor, and MCI of the Tongxinluo group were higher than those of the routine group. The PSD was significantly lower in the Tongxinluo group ( P <0.05). MCI and 3D-LVEF have the strongest correlation and highest consistency, which can best reflect the changes in the left ventricular function in patients with acute STEMI after PCI. Conclusion: 3D-STE can be used to evaluate the protective effect of Tongxinluo on the left ventricular function in patients with acute STEMI after PCI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Vasileios Panoulas ◽  
Charles Ilsley

Introduction. We aimed to identify the independent “frontline” predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and propose a rapid cardiogenic shock (CS) classification and management pathway. Materials and Methods. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 11439 incident ACS patients were treated in our institution. Forward conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the “frontline” predictors of 30 day mortality. The C-statistic assessed the discriminatory power of the model. As a validation cohort, we used 431 incident ACS patients admitted from January 1, 2020, to July 20, 2020. Results. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality included age (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07, p < 0.001 ), intubation (OR 7.4; 95% CI 4.3 to 12.74, p < 0.001 ), LV systolic impairment (OR severe_vs_normal 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.42, p = 0.015 , OR moderate_vs_normal 1.84; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.1, p = 0.022 ), serum lactate (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41, p < 0.001 ), base excess (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07, p < 0.001 ), and systolic blood pressure (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, p = 0.024 ). The model discrimination was excellent with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.879 (0.851 to 0.908) ( p < 0.001 ). Based on these predictors, we created the SAVE (SBP, Arterial blood gas, and left Ventricular Ejection fraction) ACS classification, which showed good discrimination for 30-day AUC 0.814 (0.782 to 0.845) and long-term mortality p log − rank < 0.001 . A similar AUC was demonstrated in the validation cohort (AUC 0.815). Conclusions. In the current study, we introduce a rapid way of classifying CS using frontline parameters. The SAVE ACS classification could allow for future randomized studies to explore the benefit of mechanical circulatory support in different CS stages in ACS patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 825-830
V. I. Podzolkov ◽  
A. I. Tarzimanova ◽  
A. E. Bragina ◽  
I. I. Shvedov ◽  
E. E. Bykova ◽  

Aim. To evaluate the effect of sinus tachycardia and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on the prognosis of patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2.Material and methods. The study included 1,637 patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. The average age of the patients was 58.8±16.1 years. More than half of the patients admitted to the hospital had a history of cardiovascular diseases: hypertension was diagnosed in 915 (56%) patients, coronary artery disease – in 563 (34%), chronic heart failure – in 410 (25%). 294 (17.9%) patients suffered from diabetes mellitus. The unfavorable course of new coronavirus infection was assessed by the fact of being in the intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation and death.Results. An unfavorable course of coronavirus infection was observed in 160 (9.8%) patients. Statistical analysis revealed that 341 (20.8%) patients with COVID-19 were diagnosed with sinus tachycardia, which required the appointment of pulse-reducing therapy. The occurrence of sinus tachycardia in patients with COVID-19 significantly increased the risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 1.248, confidence interval [CI] 1.038-1.499, p=0.018), increased the likelihood of mechanical ventilation use (OR 1.451, CI 1.168-1.803, p<0.001) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.440, CI 1.166-1.778, p<0.001).In 97 (5.9%) patients during hospital stay during echocardiography, a decrease in LVEF of less than 50% was diagnosed. A decrease in myocardial contractile function in patients with COVID-19 with high reliability increased the risk of death (OR 1.744, CI 1.348-2.256, p<0.001), increased the likelihood of using the mechanical ventilation (OR 1.372, CI 1.047-1.797, p=0.022) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.360, CI 1.077-1.716, p=0.010).Conclusion. The appearance of sinus tachycardia and reduced LVEF are in dependent predictors of the unfavorable course of COVID-19 in relation to factors such as death, the use of mechanical ventilation and the stay of patients in the ICU. Early pharmacological correction of cardiovascular lesions should be one of the goals of the management theese patients.

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