lift coefficient
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2022 ◽  
pp. 0309524X2110671
Shoutu Li ◽  
Qing Wang ◽  
Congxin Yang

One of the important challenges for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is to fully understand its dynamic characteristics in different operating conditions. Meanwhile, it is necessary to seek a fast and accurate method to evaluate the dynamic characteristic of VAWT. In this study, we improve the LB model by considering the operating principle of VAWT to study the dynamic characteristics of the dedicated and commonly used VAWT airfoils in different operating conditions. The results show that the improved LB model is suitable for simulating the dynamic characteristic of VAWT with a thick airfoil. Although the asymmetric airfoil shows the higher lift coefficient, their dynamic characteristic appears huge fluctuation as the increases of tip speed ratio. Moreover, at a low tip speed ratio, the advantages of the asymmetric airfoil are not obvious. While the dynamic characteristic of the symmetric airfoil is relatively stable with the variation of tip speed ratio.

Aerospace ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Robert Valldosera Martinez ◽  
Frederico Afonso ◽  
Fernando Lau

In order to decrease the emitted airframe noise by a two-dimensional high-lift configuration during take-off and landing performance, a morphing airfoil has been designed through a shape design optimisation procedure starting from a baseline airfoil (NLR 7301), with the aim of emulating a high-lift configuration in terms of aerodynamic performance. A methodology has been implemented to accomplish such aerodynamic improvements by means of the compressible steady RANS equations at a certain angle of attack, with the objective of maximising its lift coefficient up to equivalent values regarding the high-lift configuration, whilst respecting the imposed structural constraints to guarantee a realistic optimised design. For such purposes, a gradient-based optimisation through the discrete adjoint method has been undertaken. Once the optimised airfoil is achieved, unsteady simulations have been carried out to obtain surface pressure distributions along a certain time-span to later serve as the input data for the aeroacoustic prediction framework, based on the Farassat 1A formulation, where the subsequent results for both configurations are post-processed to allow for a comparative analysis. Conclusively, the morphing airfoil has proven to be advantageous in terms of aeroacoustics, in which the noise has been reduced with respect to the conventional high-lift configuration for a comparable lift coefficient, despite being hampered by a significant drag coefficient increase due to stall on the morphing airfoil’s trailing edge.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 652
Andrés E. Rivero ◽  
Stephane Fournier ◽  
Rafael M. Heeb ◽  
Benjamin K. S. Woods

This paper introduces a new modular Fish Bone Active Camber morphing wing with novel 3D printed skin panels. These skin panels are printed using two different Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) formulations: a soft, high strain formulation for the deformable membrane of the skin, reinforced with a stiffer formulation for the stringers and mounting tabs. Additionally, this is the first FishBAC device designed to be modular in its installation and actuation. Therefore, all components can be removed and replaced for maintenance purposes without having to remove or disassemble other parts. A 1m span, 0.27m chord morphing wing with a 25% chord FishBAC was built and tested mechanically and in a low-speed wind tunnel. Results show that the new design is capable of achieving the same large changes in airfoil lift coefficient (approximate ΔCL≈0.55) with a low drag penalty seen in previous FishBAC work, but with a much simpler, practical and modular design. Additionally, the device shows a change in the pitching moment coefficient of ΔCM≈0.1, which shows the potential that the FishBAC has as a control surface.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Chedhli Hafien ◽  
Abdellatif Messaoudi

To understand the nonlinear interaction between unsteady aerodynamic forces and the kinematics of structures, we theoretically and numerically investigated the characteristics of lift coefficients produced by a flapping thin flat plate controlled by the rotation axis position. The flat plate was placed in a 2-D incompressible flow at a very low Reynolds number (Re = 300). We showed that the behavior of the unsteady aerodynamic forces suggests the existence of a limit cycle. In this context, we developed a Reduced Order Model (ROM) by resolving the modified van der Pol oscillator using the Taylor development method and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. A numerical solution was obtained by integrating the differential equation of the modified van der Pol oscillator using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method (RK4). The model was validated by comparing this solution with the reformulated equation of the added mass lift coefficient. Using CFD and ROM solutions, we analyzed the dependency of the unsteady lift coefficient generation on the kinematics of the flapping flat plate. We showed that the evolution of the lift coefficient is influenced by the importance of the rotation motion of the Leading Edge (LE) or Trailing Edge (TE), according to the position of the rotation axis. Indeed, when the rotation axis is moved towards the LE, the maximum and the minimum values of the lift coefficient are proportional to the downward and upward motions respectively of the TE and the rotation axis. However, when the rotation axis is moved towards the TE, the maximum and the minimum values of the lift coefficient are proportional to the downward and upward motions respectively of the LE and the rotation axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (01) ◽  
pp. 31-51
Tanya Peart ◽  
Nicolas Aubin ◽  
Stefano Nava ◽  
John Cater ◽  
Stuart Norris

Velocity Prediction Programs (VPPs) are commonly used to help predict and compare the performance of different sail designs. A VPP requires an aerodynamic input force matrix which can be computationally expensive to calculate, limiting its application in industrial sail design projects. The use of multi-fidelity kriging surrogate models has previously been presented by the authors to reduce this cost, with high-fidelity data for a new sail being modelled and the low-fidelity data provided by data from existing, but different, sail designs. The difference in fidelity is not due to the simulation method used to obtain the data, but instead how similar the sail’s geometry is to the new sail design. An important consideration for the construction of these models is the choice of low-fidelity data points, which provide information about the trend of the model curve between the high-fidelity data. A method is required to select the best existing sail design to use for the low-fidelity data when constructing a multi-fidelity model. The suitability of an existing sail design as a low fidelity model could be evaluated based on the similarity of its geometric parameters with the new sail. It is shown here that for upwind jib sails, the similarity of the broadseam between the two sails best indicates the ability of a design to be used as low-fidelity data for a lift coefficient surrogate model. The lift coefficient surrogate model error predicted by the regression is shown to be close to 1% of the lift coefficient surrogate error for most points. Larger discrepancies are observed for a drag coefficient surrogate error regression.

Shruti Dipak Jadhav ◽  
Pawan Hiteshbhai Jethwa ◽  
Shiva Prasad U ◽  
Suresh Kumar M

Blended wing body is a fixed wing aircraft which are smoothly blended together with no clear dividing line and no distinct wings also be given a wide Aerofoil shaped body. The future transportation is of aircrafts will incline towards the aerodynamically efficient and capable of carrying large number of passengers over long range and environmental benefits is the main paradigm in the design of aircraft BWB has a high lift to drag ratio which increases the CL max and velocity of the airplane with high load factor and high economy compared with traditional aircraft. Evacuation pressure or the cabin pressurization is the major issues in most of the designs with the minimum aerodynamic lift coefficient and drag coefficient. On the other side of the trend is towards the increasing cruise speed. High speed flow is connected with overcoming of intensive drag rise accruing due to existence of intensive shock, closing local area of supersonic flow. Increase of flight Mach number is possible only by using flow control methods and through affecting the shock increases of aspect ratio leads to increase of lift coefficient corresponding to maximal lift to drag. High bypass ratio engines have smaller fuel consumption and lower noise level but have negative effect on flow around airframe including take-off and landing phases. The necessity of solving problem of intensive aerodynamic heating of surface element of flight vehicles and by ensuring of their stability and controllability and also by need of implementing of high-volume tanks for hydrogen fuel and super high bypass ratio engines.

2021 ◽  
Azad Hussain ◽  
Muhammad Arsaln ◽  
Ali Hassan ◽  
Aysha Rehman

Abstract This paper investigates time-dependent compressible steam laminar flow coupled with heat transfer in fluids in a squared cylinder. The present problem has been designed in COMSOL-Multiphysics. The laminar flow is selected keeping the Mac number low. The flow possesses a no-slip condition with the wall of geometry. The pressure kept on flow is 0 Pas and the temperature of the flow regime is 305.13. The flow is initiated with a velocity of 0.5m/s. The effects of time on velocity distribution and pressure distribution are described with the help of graphs. Different results like drag coefficient, lift coefficient, heat distributions are also discussed. The technique used to solve modeled problem is BDF.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Jiyang Qi ◽  
Yue Qi ◽  
Qunyan Chen ◽  
Fei Yan

In this study, the drag reduction effect is studied for a cylinder with different V-groove depths on its surface using a k-ω/SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), while a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is employed to analyze the wake characteristics for a smooth cylinder and a cylinder with different V-groove depths on its surface at different Reynolds numbers. The study focuses on the characteristics of the different V-groove depths on lift coefficient, drag coefficient, the velocity distribution of flow field, pressure coefficient, vortex shedding, and vortex structure. In comparison with a smooth cylinder, the lift coefficient and drag coefficient can be reduced for a cylinder with different V-groove depths on its surface, and the maximum reduction rates of lift coefficient and drag coefficient are about 34.4% and 16%, respectively. Otherwise, the vortex structure presents a complete symmetry for the smooth cylinder, however, the symmetry of the vortex structure becomes insignificant for the V-shaped groove structure with different depths. This is also an important reason for the drag reduction effect of a cylinder with a V-groove surface.

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