numerical models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-70
Author(s):  
Galina Eremina ◽  
◽  
Alexey Smolin ◽  
Irina Martyshina ◽  
◽  
...  

Degenerative diseases of the spine can lead to or hasten the onset of additional spinal problems that significantly reduce human mobility. The spine consists of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The most degraded are intervertebral discs. The vertebral body consists of a shell (cortical bone tissue) and an internal content (cancellous bone tissue). The intervertebral disc is a complex structural element of the spine, consisting of the nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and cartilaginous plates. To develop numerical models for the vertebral body and intervertebral disc, first, it is necessary to verify and validate the models for the constituent elements of the lumbar spine. This paper, for the first time, presents discrete elements-based numerical models for the constituent parts of the lumbar spine, and their verification and validation. The models are validated using uniaxial compression experiments available in the literature. The model predictions are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the data of those experiments. The loading rate sensitivity analysis revealed that fluid-saturated porous materials are highly sensitive to loading rate: a 1000-fold increase in rate leads to the increase in effective stiffness of 130 % for the intervertebral disc, and a 250-fold increase in rate leads to the increase in effective stiffness of 50 % for the vertebral body. The developed model components can be used to create an L4-L5 segment model, which, in the future, will allow investigating the mechanical behavior of the spine under different types of loading.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e0201-e0201
Author(s):  
Alberto Assirelli ◽  

Aim of study: To test new approaches to perform mechanical weeding inside the row in horticulture and tree fruit fields. The idea is to weed the row by skipping the crop by means of a rotating system instead of a traditional crosswise one. Area of study: North of Italy. Material and methods: Numerical models have been developed to simulate mechanical weeding over time by generating numerical maps to quantify the different kind of worked areas. Main results: Considering the efficiency of weed control on the row, the rotating plant-skipping system with vertical axis (RPSS-VA model) with two working tools gives the best performance index (1.1.RWA% = 95.9%). A similar performance can be obtained by the crosswise displacement plant-skipping system (CDSS model, 1.1.RWA% = 95.9 %), but with very high crosswise translation velocity (with va/vr ratio = 1/5, 1.1.RWA% = 94.5%). With regard to the outwards worked area the RPSS-VA models give the best performances (2.2.%OWAR index from 127.2% up to 282.3%). To reduce the worked area outside the row, the FBTS models give lower index (2.1.OWAR%), while the RPSS-HA works only on the row, but with the lower 1.1.RWA% index among all tested models (55.8%). Research highlights: Rotating systems resulted more efficient than traditional ones, and provide considerations on the use of electric drive power instead of hydraulic one. This study highlights also the need of new approaches in designing lighter working tools. Lastly, the proposed classification of the worked areas could be used as reference standard.


2022 ◽  
pp. 204141962110654
Author(s):  
Tan-Trung Bui ◽  
Dhafar Al Galib ◽  
Abdelkrim Bennani ◽  
Ali Limam

The collapse of tubes under axial load is an important subject from the safety point of view, particularly in the design of energy absorbing devices used in many engineering applications. In this study, quasi-static and dynamic experiments were carried out on square thin-walled aluminum extrusions to investigate the effects of circular holes. Cutouts were introduced in the four corners of the square-section tube, not far from the end boundary of the tube, in order both to decrease the first peak load on the load-displacement characteristic and to control the collapse mode. Different aspects, such as the buckling modes and the energy absorption in quasi-static axial crushing tests, as well as dynamic effects and material rheology contributions in dynamic crushing tests, have been examined. For the dynamic tests, the parameters were the impacting mass and its velocity. The results showed a drop in the first peak function of the openings’ radius and the tube’s energy absorption capacity was kept. A comparison between static and dynamic tests results was carried out and the interpretation of the results in terms of deformation mechanism and energy absorption was discussed. Numerical simulations with the finite element code ABAQUS were conducted to confirm the experimental findings. The results of different numerical models, implicit and explicit calculations, that contribute to a basic understanding of the buckling and prediction of the crash behavior of the aluminum components without and with the cutouts are presented.


Friction ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gianluca Costagliola ◽  
Federico Bosia ◽  
Nicola M. Pugno

AbstractThe contact of two surfaces in relative rotating motion occurs in many practical applications, from mechanical devices to human joints, displaying an intriguing interplay of effects at the onset of sliding due to the axisymmetric stress distribution. Theoretical and numerical models have been developed for some typical configurations, but work remains to be done to understand how to modify the emergent friction properties in this configuration. In this paper, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) spring-block model to investigate friction between surfaces in torsional contact. We investigate how the model describes the behavior of an elastic surface slowly rotating over a rigid substrate, comparing results with analytical calculations based on energy conservation. We show that an appropriate grading of the tribological properties of the surface can be used to avoid a non-uniform transition to sliding due to the axisymmetric configuration.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 234
Author(s):  
Antonio Pasculli ◽  
Roberto Longo ◽  
Nicola Sciarra ◽  
Carmine Di Nucci

The analysis and prevention of hydrogeological risks plays a very important role and, currently, much attention is paid to advanced numerical models that correspond more to physical reality and whose aim is to reproduce complex environmental phenomena even for long times and on large spatial scales. Within this context, the feasibility of performing an effective balance of surface water flow relating to several months was explored, based on accurate hydraulic and mathematical-numerical models applied to a system at the scale of a hydrographic basin. To pursue this target, a 2D Riemann–Godunov shallow-water approach, solved in parallel on a graphical processing unit (GPU), able to drastically reduce calculation time, and implemented into the RiverFlow2D code (2017 version), was selected. Infiltration and evapotranspiration were included but in a simplified way, in order to face the calibration and validation simulations and because, despite the parallel approach, it is very demanding even for the computer time requirement. As a test case the Pescara river basin, located in Abruzzo, Central Italy, covering an area of 813 km2 and well representative of a typical medium-sized basin, was selected. The topography was described by a 10 × 10 m digital terrain model (DTM), covered by about 1,700,000 triangular elements, equipped with 11 rain gauges, distributed over the entire area, with some hydrometers and some fluviometric stations. Calibration, and validation were performed considering the flow data measured at a station located in close proximity to the mouth of the river. The comparison between the numerical and measured data, and also from a statistical point of view, was quite satisfactory. A further important outcome was the capability to highlight any differences between the numerical flow-rate balance carried out on the basis of the contributions of all known sources and the values actually measured. This characteristic of the applied modeling allows better calibration and verification not only of the effectiveness of much more simplified approaches, but also the entire network of measurement stations and could suggest the need for a more in-depth exploration of the territory in question. It would also enable the eventual identification of further hidden supplies of water inventory from underground sources and, accordingly, to enlarge the hydrographic and hydrogeological border of the basin under study. Moreover, the parallel computing platform would also allow the development of effective early warning systems, for example, of floods.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Verónica González-Gambau ◽  
Estrella Olmedo ◽  
Antonio Turiel ◽  
Cristina González-Haro ◽  
Aina García-Espriu ◽  
...  

Abstract. This paper presents the first Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) dedicated products over the Baltic Sea. The SSS retrieval from L-band brightess temperature (TB) measurements over this basin is really challenging due to important technical issues, such as the land-sea and ice-sea contamination, the high contamination by Radio-Frequency Interferences (RFI) sources, the low sensitivity of L-band TB at SSS changes in cold waters and the poor characterization of dielectric constant models for the low SSS and SST ranges in the basin. For these reasons, exploratory research in the algorithms used from the level 0 up to level 4 has been required to develop these dedicated products. This work has been performed in the framework of the European Space Agency regional initiative Baltic+ Salinity Dynamics. Two Baltic+ SSS products have been generated for the period 2011–2019 and are freely distributed: the Level 3 (L3) product (daily generated 9-day maps in a 0.25° grid, https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/13859) (González-Gambau et al., 2021a) and the Level 4 (L4) product (daily maps in a 0.05° grid, https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/13860) (González-Gambau et al., 2021b)), that are computed by applying multifractal fusion to L3 SSS with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps. The accuracy of L3 SSS products is typically around 0.7–0.8 psu. The L4 product has an improved spatio-temporal resolution with respect to the L3 and the accuracy is typically around 0.4 psu. Regions with the highest errors and limited coverage are located in Arkona and Bornholm basins and Gulfs of Finland and Riga. The impact assessment of Baltic+ SSS products has shown that they can help in the understanding of salinity dynamics in the basin. They complement the temporally and spatially very sparse in situ measurements, covering data gaps in the region and they can also be useful for the validation of numerical models, particularly in areas where in situ data are very sparse.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 227
Author(s):  
Daniela Rincón ◽  
Juan Felipe Velandia ◽  
Ioannis Tsanis ◽  
Usman T. Khan

Amongst all natural disasters, floods have the greatest economic and social impacts worldwide, and their frequency is expected to increase due to climate change. Therefore, improved flood risk assessment is important for implementing flood mitigation measures in urban areas. The increasing need for quantifying the impacts of flooding have resulted in the development of methods for flood risk assessment. The aim of this study was to quantify flood risk under climate change scenarios in the Rockcliffe area within the Humber River watershed in Toronto, Canada, by using the Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) method. CAPRA is a platform for stochastic disaster risk assessment that allows for the characterization of uncertainty in the underlying numerical models. The risk was obtained by integrating the (i) flood hazard, which considered future rainfall based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) for three time periods (short-term: 2020–2049, medium-term: 2040–2069, and long-term: 2070–2099); (ii) exposed assets within a flood-prone region; (iii) vulnerability functions, which quantified the damage to an asset at different hazard levels. The results revealed that rainfall intensities are likely to increase during the 21st century in the study area, leading to an increase in flood hazards, higher economic costs, and social impacts for the majority of the scenarios. The highest impacts were found for the climate scenario RCP 8.5 for the long-term period and the lowest for RCP 4.5 for the short-term period. The results from this modeling approach can be used for planning purposes in a floodplain management study. The modeling approach identifies critical areas that need to be protected to mitigate future flood risks. Higher resolution climate change and field data are needed to obtain detailed results required for a final design that will mitigate these risks.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianxiu Wang ◽  
Tianliang Yang ◽  
Guotao Wang ◽  
Xiaotian Liu ◽  
Na Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract Coastal mega cities are often commercial centers because of convenient traffic. Safe elevation above sea level is vital for their sustainable development. Global climate change and sea level rising increase flood risk especially in the lowland subsidence area. Shanghai of China was selected as research background. Although groundwater exploitation had been strictly restrained to control land subsidence and reserve safe elevation, lowering groundwater level during underground excavation cannot be avoided. Foundation pit dewatering (FPD) was intensively performed in underground exploitation during urbanization and city renewal. The FPD settlement accelerated land subsidence. Controlling FPD subsidence was urgent. Normally, the maximum horizontal influence radius of foundation pit excavation was less than three times excavation depth (H), and the 3H settlement was only caused by the FPD. The 3H maximum settlement was defined as the evaluating indicator of FPD land subsidence, and the corresponding 3H drawdown was defined as the control indicator of land subsidence. The FPD conceptual models were established on the basis of estimation and investigation of foundation pit information, including pit area, pit shape, pit depth, and curtain depth. Numerical models were established and a total of 5650 FPD numerical simulations were performed to investigate the land subsidence and FPD drawdown. Multi-factor regression analysis was conducted to obtain relations between land subsidence and FPD drawdown. Regression models were established between the 3H drawdown and the shape, area, depth, and curtain depth of foundation pit on the basis of the numerical simulations. A typical example introduced to verify the regression models. The regression models were used to manage the FPD land subsidence by controlling the 3H FPD drawdown. The results can provide reference for the land subsidence control in a coastal lowland city.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Author(s):  
Moritz Braun ◽  
Alfons Dörner ◽  
Kane F. ter Veer ◽  
Tom Willems ◽  
Marc Seidel ◽  
...  

Fixed offshore wind turbines continue to be developed for high latitude areas where not only wind and wave loads need to be considered but also moving sea ice. Current rules and regulations for the design of fixed offshore structures in ice-covered waters do not adequately consider the effects of ice loading and its stochastic nature on the fatigue life of the structure. Ice crushing on such structures results in ice-induced vibrations, which can be represented by loading the structure using a variable-amplitude loading (VAL) sequence. Typical offshore load spectra are developed for wave and wind loading. Thus, a combined VAL spectrum is developed for wind, wave, and ice action. To this goal, numerical models are used to simulate the dynamic ice-, wind-, and wave-structure interaction. The stress time-history at an exemplarily selected critical point in an offshore wind energy monopile support structure is extracted from the model and translated into a VAL sequence, which can then be used as a loading sequence for the fatigue assessment or fatigue testing of welded joints of offshore wind turbine support structures. This study presents the approach to determine combined load spectra and standardized time series for wind, wave, and ice action.


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