Domestic Wastewater
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Abhijit D. Garad ◽  

Phytoremediation is fresh, well organized, low priced and recycled method for control of environmental pollution. In this phytoremediation technology, plants are used to enhance the status of environment. By using this method, organic and inorganic pollutant can easily eliminate from domestic. An aquatic plant culture was grown in regimented cement tank. Domestic waste Water was filled in this cement tank for specified interval of seven days. Before growth of aquatic plant culture quality of domestic waste water was evaluated. After specified time interval domestic waste water quality was again evaluated to check improvement of quality of waste water. The result of analysis indicates that phytoremediation process improves the quantity of waste water. For this phytoremediation process Canna, Hyacinth colocasia Arabica, Typha etc. aquatic plants are used. These aquatic plants absorb organic and inorganic parameters from waste water.

Bruno de Oliveira Freitas ◽  
Luan de Souza Leite ◽  
Maria Teresa Hoffmann ◽  
Antonio Wagner Lamon ◽  
Luiz Antonio Daniel

Abstract Biological reactors with immobilized biomass on free carriers have provided new perspectives for wastewater treatment, once they reduce the system size and increase the treatment capacity. In this study, the performance of three Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) using different carriers (with and without protected surface area) were evaluated for domestic wastewater treatment in continuous flow. Each MBBRs (i.e., R1, R2, and R3) was filled at a ratio of 50% with high-density polyethylene carriers with different characteristics: both R1-K1 and R2-Corrugated tube with protected surface and R3-HDPE flakes without protected surface. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 80 ± 5.0, 80 ± 3.5, and 78 ± 2.4% was achieved by R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The oxygen uptake by biofilm attached on the carriers was 0.0079 ± 0.0013, 0.0033 ± 0.0015, and 0.0031 ± 0.0026 μg DO·mm−2 for the K1, corrugated tube, and HDPE flakes, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the performance of the three MBBRs in terms of physico-chemical parameters (alkalinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon) and COD removal. Results showed that the carrier type and its characteristics (total area and with/without protected area) did not affect the organic matter removal. Thus, the carrier without a protected surface in MBBR could be a promising low-cost option for domestic wastewater treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 565-580
Yeong Hwang Tan ◽  
Mee Kin Chai ◽  
Yang Kai Ooi ◽  
Ling Shing Wong

Domestic wastewater contains chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients for microalgae. Removing these chemical compounds from wastewater by microalgae might help in reducing the operation cost of wastewater management while minimizing the cultivation cost for large-scale microalgae metabolite production. In this study, domestic wastewater collected from Indah Water Konsortium (IWK), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was assessed as growth media for two types of microalgae, namely Chlorella vulgaris and Haematococcus pluvialis. The biomass growth and nutrient removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total ammonia (TAN) in different concentrations of diluted wastewater were measured. The results showed that biomass concentration (0.227 g/L), biomass productivity (0.029 g/L/day), and specific growth rate (0,284 d-1) yielded by C. vulgaris in 14 days of 80% wastewater were comparable to those microalgae grew in standard Bold’s Basal medium (BBM). Besides, C. vulgaris grew in 50% wastewater to remove TN, TP, and TAN with the highest removal efficiency (>88%). For H. pluvialis, the biomass concentration in all wastewater concentrations was lower than BBM. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were lower than 55%, but more than 80% for removal efficiency of TAN in 50% and 80% wastewater. Hence, C. vulgaris has better growth performance and nutrient removal efficiency than H. pluvialis. These findings indicated that IWK domestic wastewater could be used as growth media for microalgae, especially C. vulgaris.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Yu Huang ◽  
Yongzhen Peng ◽  
Donghui Huang ◽  
Jiarui Fan ◽  
Rui Du

A partial-denitrification coupling with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process (PD/A) in a continuous-flow anoxic/oxic (A/O) biofilm reactor was developed to treat carbon-limited domestic wastewater (ammonia (NH4+-N) of 55 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 148 mg/L in average) for about 200 days operation. Satisfactory NH4+-N oxidation efficiency above 95% was achieved with rapid biofilm formation in the aerobic zone. Notably, nitrite (NO2−-N) accumulation was observed in the anoxic zone, mainly due to the insufficient electron donor for complete nitrate (NO3−-N) reduction. The nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio (NTR) achieved was as high as 64.4%. After the inoculation of anammox-enriched sludge to anoxic zones, total nitrogen (TN) removal was significantly improved from 37.3% to 78.0%. Anammox bacteria were effectively retained in anoxic biofilm utilizing NO2−-N produced via the PD approach and NH4+-N in domestic wastewater, with the relative abundance of 5.83% for stable operation. Anammox pathway contributed to TN removal by a high level of 38%. Overall, this study provided a promising method for mainstream nitrogen removal with low energy consumption and organic carbon demand.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Solomon Tibebu ◽  
Abebe Worku ◽  
Kenatu Angassa

This study aimed to evaluate the treatment potential of gradual hydroponics planted with Duranta erecta in the removal of pathogens from domestic wastewater. Two experimental and control units were configured in series. Each unit contains three bioreactors and was arranged in a cascaded configuration. The two experimental units used both plant and media, but the two control units used only media to treat the wastewater. Gravel and polyester sponge were used as media. Experimental unit 1 and control unit 1 used gravel as media; however, experimental unit 2 and control unit 2 used polyester sponges as media. The experiment was operated at hydraulic retention times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 days in a continuous mode. The performance of the hydroponic system was evaluated by characterizing the influent and effluent quality using standard methods. At optimum hydraulic retention time (7 days), the average removal of experimental units 1 and 2 was 98.7% and 89.8% for heterotrophic bacteria, 96.2% and 86.8% for total coliform, and 92.9% and 84.0% for fecal coliform, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference P < 0.05 between the two experimental and control units in removing pathogens, but no significant difference P > 0.05 was observed between the two experimental units and between the two control units. Heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms were satisfactorily removed from domestic wastewater via a gradual hydroponic system. Hence, the hydroponic treatment system planted with Duranta erecta has a promising potential in the removal of pathogens from domestic wastewater in developing countries including Ethiopia.

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