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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-610
Valéria Pereira Rodrigues ◽  
Dermeval Araújo Furtado ◽  
Neila Lidiany Ribeiro ◽  
Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues ◽  

The objective was to evaluate the increasing levels of magnesium in the water supplied to laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), kept in climatic chambers under thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress, on their performance and morphometry of their organs. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2x4 factorial arrangement, 2 temperatures (24 and 32 ºC) and 4 levels of magnesium in the water (50, 150, 250 and 350 mg L-1), with six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability level. The magnesium levels in the water did not affect (P > 0.05) the production performance and morphometry of the organs, with less water consumption at the magnesium level of 150 mg L-1, and birds kept at 32 °C had a reduction in feed consumption and feed conversion, but without affecting organ morphometry. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with magnesium levels up to 350 mg L-1 without having their production performance and morphometry of organs affected and raised in an environment with temperatures of up to 32 °C.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 611-628
João Marcos Monteiro Batista ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Veruska Dilyanne Silva Gomes ◽  

Fish larviculture exert great influence in the subsequent phases, in which nutrition is a basic prerequisite for success. Therefore, when it is in an intensified production system, it promotes the limitation of some minerals, making it necessary to supplement selenium in diets for post-larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate selenium levels and sources in post-larvae Nile tilapia diets on muscle performance and histology. A total of 1,260 post-larvae with an initial average weight of 0.010 g were used, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme with four supplementation levels (0.6; 0.9; 1.2 and 1.5 mg of Se/Kg) and two sources (sodium selenite and selenium yeast), plus the negative control, with 35 post-larvae Nile tilapia used per experimental unit. The physical-chemical parameters of water quality were within those recommended for tilapia cultivation. Feed consumption (p < 0.05) and hepatosomatic index (p < 0.05) were affected by the source used. Effects of supplemented selenium levels and sources were not observed for the other performance variables. Higher values for final height, final width, specific development rate and protein efficiency rate were found (p < 0.05) when comparing the control diet with diets containing the sodium selenite source. No effects on muscle fiber morphometry were observed (p > 0.05) in the studied variables. It is concluded that 0.6 mg of selenium in the diet, regardless of the source used, met the mineral requirement for post-larvae Nile tilapia.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. G. Barbosa ◽  
S. A. Souza ◽  
T. P. P. André ◽  
A. D. S. Pontes ◽  
C. S. Teixeira ◽  

Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest’s populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.

A K Blomme ◽  
H K Wecker ◽  
M D Tokach ◽  
J C Woodworth ◽  
C R Stark ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to estimate the net energy (NE) value of expelled, extruded soybean meal (MSBM) relative to dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM) and determine its effects on growth performance of late nursery pigs. A total of 297 pigs (DNA 241 x 600) were weaned (BW 5.10 kg) and placed into 60 pens (2 rooms of 30 pens) with 5 pigs per pen balanced by gender and weaning weight. Pigs were fed a common diet for 21 days. Then, pens of pigs (BW 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments to provide 12 replications per treatment. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of MSBM replacing SSBM in the diet (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%). All diets were fed for 28 days and were formulated to 1.30% standardized ileal digestible lysine and met or exceeded NRC (2012) recommendations for amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus. The SSBM diet was formulated to 2,421 kcal/kg and NE was not balanced between diets. Analyzed values for CP, EE, CF, and total lysine for the SSBM were 47.28%, 0.47%, 3.80%, and 3.00% while the MSBM contained 47.41%, 6.88%, 5.32%, and 2.99% respectively. The MSBM had increased values for KOH solubility and trypsin inhibitor (83.62% and 7,026 TIU/g) compared to the SSBM (73.05% and 3,011 TIU/g) while urease activity was similar between the two (0.03 and 0.02 Δ pH, respectively). Data were analyzed using Proc GLIMMIX (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with pen as the experimental unit and room as the blocking factor. There was no evidence of differences in ADG and ADFI in pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM. Pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM had improved (linear, P &lt; 0.001) G:F and caloric efficiency on an NE basis. Using caloric efficiency to estimate NE of the MSBM relative to SSBM, MSBM was estimated to have a value of 2,566 kcal/kg. In conclusion, MSBM contains approximately 123% of the energy of SSBM, which improved feed efficiency when fed to nursery pigs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 367-380
Luciane Maria Stumpf ◽  
Jansller Luiz Genova ◽  
Liliana Bury de Azevedo dos Santos ◽  
Paulo Evaristo Rupolo ◽  

This study was conducted to assess the effect of two types of drinkers on water intake (WI) and two types of toys on behavioural observations of piglets in the nursery phase. A total of 72 crossbred entire male piglets (Landrace × Large White, Agroceres♂ and DanBred♀), weaned at 21 days of age, with an average initial body weight (AIBW) of 6.75 ± 0.19 kg were used. Two statistical models were fitted for WI. In model I, animals were distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD) with a split-plot in time, composed of six treatments (2 types of drinkers × 3 experimental phases), eight replications (days of sampling), and 36 animals/experimental unit (EU), without using AIBW as a covariate. In model II, animals were distributed in a CRD with two treatments (fixed or pendular nipple drinkers), eight replications (days of sampling) and 36 animals/EU, with use of AIBW as a covariate. For assessment of behavioural observations, the model was adjusted in a randomized block design, consisting of four treatments [two types of toys (metal chain and plastic bottle) × two daytime periods (morning and afternoon)], nine replications and three blocks constituted in time (days), totalling four pigs/EU. The results indicated an effect on animal daily WI in the starter phase in model I (p < 0.000) and II (p = 0.006). There was an effect (p ≤ 0.05) of toy type for behavioural observations, in which pigs showed a greater proportion of fighting and belly nosing when they had the bottle toy. However, animals spent more time (p ≤ 0.05) eating, drinking water, overlapping, and playing with the toy when they had access to the chain toy. There was an increase (p ≤ 0.05) in sleeping behaviour in the morning period, as well as greater (p ≤ 0.05) behavioural activity in the afternoon period. In conclusion, WI of nursery piglets was positively influenced by growth phase, and the fixed drinker stimulated greater WI in piglets in the starter phase. In addition, the metal chain, as an environmental enrichment, promoted improvements in feeding behaviour and WI, reducing fighting events, and the afternoon period had increased behavioural observations overall.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Solomon Tibebu ◽  
Abebe Worku ◽  
Kenatu Angassa

This study aimed to evaluate the treatment potential of gradual hydroponics planted with Duranta erecta in the removal of pathogens from domestic wastewater. Two experimental and control units were configured in series. Each unit contains three bioreactors and was arranged in a cascaded configuration. The two experimental units used both plant and media, but the two control units used only media to treat the wastewater. Gravel and polyester sponge were used as media. Experimental unit 1 and control unit 1 used gravel as media; however, experimental unit 2 and control unit 2 used polyester sponges as media. The experiment was operated at hydraulic retention times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 days in a continuous mode. The performance of the hydroponic system was evaluated by characterizing the influent and effluent quality using standard methods. At optimum hydraulic retention time (7 days), the average removal of experimental units 1 and 2 was 98.7% and 89.8% for heterotrophic bacteria, 96.2% and 86.8% for total coliform, and 92.9% and 84.0% for fecal coliform, respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference P < 0.05 between the two experimental and control units in removing pathogens, but no significant difference P > 0.05 was observed between the two experimental units and between the two control units. Heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms were satisfactorily removed from domestic wastewater via a gradual hydroponic system. Hence, the hydroponic treatment system planted with Duranta erecta has a promising potential in the removal of pathogens from domestic wastewater in developing countries including Ethiopia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (2) ◽  
Taynah Vieira Aguiar Farias ◽  
Charles Kiefer ◽  
Karina Marcia Ribeiro de Souza Nascimento ◽  
Anderson Corassa ◽  
Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar ◽  

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated chromium supplements and energy restriction as substitutes for ractopamine in the diets of late finishing gilts. Sixty gilts were used, with initial weights of 98.87 ± 0.25 kg and final weights of 122.69 ± 10.97 kg, distributed in a randomized block design with five diets: control; yeast chromium (0.8 ppm); chromium picolinate (0.48 ppm); ractopamine (20 ppm) and energy restriction (reduction of 150 kcal of EM kg-1 of feed), with six replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Feeding diet containing ractopamine enabled better (P<0.05) feed conversion and greater weights of the hot carcass of the gilts. The diet containing ractopamine exhibited a lower (P<0.05) cost of feed per kilogram of gain and higher economic efficiency, when compared to diets containing chromium and energy restriction; these exhibited better outcomes, compared to the control diet. Diets supplemented with chromium and ractopamine resulted in a higher (P<0.05) percentage and quantity of lean meat and a higher rate of carcass bonus, when compared to the control diet and energy restriction. The energy reduction did not harm the gilts’ responses, compared to the control diet. Ractopamine supplementation allowed for a better feed conversion, lower feed cost per kilogram of gain, and a higher economic efficiency index. Supplements of chromium and ractopamine increased the percentage and quantity of lean meat and the bonus index of the carcasses. Therefore, chromium picolinate and chromium yeast are potential substitutes for ractopamine for optimizing the gilts carcass characteristics.

Jurnal Wasian ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-120
Febryani Febryani ◽  
Faisal Tuheteru ◽  
Asrianti Arif ◽  
Husna Husna

Kalapi (Kalappia celebica Kosterm.) is endemic in Sulawesi and Endangered species. Plant propagation needs to be done but is constrained by limited seeds. Vegetative propagation of plants can be an alternative method such as using the root cutting technique that has been done previously on other types of species. This study aims to determine the success of vegetative propagation of kalapi (K. celebica), an endangered tree species by root cuttings using Rootone F. as root growth regulator. The research took place from March to June 2019 conducted at the plastic house of the Indonesian Mycorrhizal Association (AMI) Southeast Sulawesi Branch, Kendari. This study used a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of 6 treatments of Rootone-F concentration : (a) 0 ppm, (b) 100 ppm, (c) 200 ppm, (d) 300 ppm, (e) 400 ppm and (f) 500 ppm. Each treatment was repeated three times and three units of the plant so that the total experimental unit used was 54 units. The results showed that the provision of Rootone-F could increase the success of the growth of kalapi root cuttings. Rootone-F concentration of 500 ppm gives the best results on the percentage of cuttings, percentage of sprouts, percentage of roots, number of shoots and shoot dry weight. The results showed that kalapi can be propagated by root cuttings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (23) ◽  
pp. 113-117
Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim ◽  
Ernane Ronie Martins ◽  
Rosana Gonçalves Rodrigues Das Dores ◽  
Camila Karen Reis Barbosa ◽  
Vicente Wagner Dias Casali ◽  

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of homeopathic preparation Arnica montana in rooting of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and White Lippia (Lippia alba). The cuttings Rosmarinus officinalis and Lippia alba, collected from the medicinal garden at NCA / UFMG, were placed in trays to root with commercial substrate type "plantmax" and immediately after were subjected to daily applications of homeopathic preparations of Arnica montana in dilutions 3cH, 6cH, 9cH, 12cH, with 2 controls, distilled water and ethanol 70%. The statistical design was completely randomized (DIC), with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions, each experimental unit was formed by 10 stakes. After 45 days, were assessed the number of roots, the nummber of shoots, the length of the largest root, the percentage of rooted stakes and the quality of stakes. Arnica montana in dilutions 3cH, 6cH and 12cH stimulated all variables related to the issuance of roots in the species under study, which emphasizes the similarity between Arnica montana and the picture elicited by the physiological process of cutting, promoting an increase in the percentage and quality of the roots. Keywords: Homeopathy; rooting; cutting; Arnica Montana.   Uso do preparado homeopático Arnica montana na formação de raízes de Rosmarinus officinalis L. e Lippia alba (Mill)N.E.E.Br Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influéncia do preparado homeopático Arnica montana na formação de raízes de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis) e cidreira (Lippia alba). Mudas de Rosmarinus officinalis e Lippia alba, cultivadas no horto medicinal de NCA/UFMG foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas contendo substrato comercial de tipo "plantamax" e imediatamente após, submetidas a aplicações diárias de preparados homeopáticos de Arnica montana nas diluições 3cH, 6cH, 9cH e 12cH, com dois controles, água destilada e etanol 70%. O desenho estatístico foi completamente randomizado (DIC), com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições, cada unidade experimental esteve composta de 10 estacas. Depois de 45 dias, foram avaliados o número de raízes, o número de brotos, a longitude da raiz mais longa, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e qualidade das estacas. Arnica montana nas diluições 3cH, 6cH e 12cH promoveu todas as variáveis relacionadas com a formação de raízes sob estudo, acentuando a semelhança entre Arnica montana e o quadro induzido pelo processo fisiológico do estacamento, promovendo aumento na porcentagem e qualidade das raízes. Palavras-chave: Homeopatia; enraizamento; corte; Arnica Montana.   Uso del preparado homeopático Arnica montana en la formación de raíces de Rosmarinus officinalis L. y Lippia alba (Mill) N.E.Br. Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del preparado homeopático Arnica montana en la formación de raíces de romero (Rosmarinus officnalis) y lippia blanca (Lippia alba). Mudas de Rosmarinus officinalis y Lippia alba, cultivados en la huerta medicinal de NCA/UFMG fueron colocadas para arraigar en bandejas conteniendo sustrato comercial de tipo "plantamax" e inmediatamente después fueron sometidas a aplicaciones diarias de preparados homeopáticos de Arnica montana en las diluciones 3cH, 6cH, 9cH y 12cH, con dos controles, agua destilada y etanol 70%. El diseño estatístico fue completamente randomizado (DIC), con 6 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones, cada unidad experimental compuesta por 10 estacas. Después de 45 días, fueron evaluados el número de raíces, número de brotes, longitud de la raíz más larga, porcentaje de estacas arraigadas y la calidad de las estacas. Arnica montana en las diluciones 3cH, 6cH y 12cH promovió todas las variables relacionadas a la formación de raíces en estudio, acentuando la similaridad entre Arnica montana y el cuadro inducido por el proceso fisiológico de estacamiento, promoviendo aumento del porcentaje y calidad de las raíces. Palabras-clave: Homeopatía; enraizamiento; corte; Árnica Montana.   Correspondence author: Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, email: [email protected] How to cite this article: Bonfim FPG, Martins ER, Dores RGR, Barbosa CKR, Casali VWD, Honório ICG. Use of homeopathic Arnica montana for the issuance of roots of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Lippia alba (Mill) N.E.Br. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]: 7(23); 113-117. Available from: http://journal.giri-society.org/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/276/348.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Nour Wasilah Shopa Riska ◽  
Riza Adrianoor Saputra ◽  
Antar Sofyan

<p>Banjarbaru merupakan salah satu daerah di Kalimantan Selatan yang memiliki prospek yang baik sebagai daerah pengembangan komoditas krisan. Pertumbuhan tanaman krisan sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, misalnya media tanam, ketersediaan air dan hara, iklim mikro, suhu, kelembaban, serta intensitas cahaya matahari tertentu sehingga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan akan cahaya yang optimal maka perlakuan naungan diperlukan selama fase pertumbuhannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh persentase kerapatan pada naungan terhadap pertumbuhan setek krisan varietas Puspita Nusantara. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada Bulan November sampai Desember 2020, bertempat di Kebun Percobaan Jurusan Agroekoteknologi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian yaitu Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan perlakuan kerapatan paranet, yaitu n1 (paranet dengan kerapatan 75%), n2 (paranet dengan kerapatan 100%), n3 (paranet dengan kerapatan 125%), dan n4 (paranet dengan kerapatan 150%), yang terdiri atas lima kelompok sehingga terdapat 20 satuan percobaan, dan setiap satuan percobaan terdapat lima unit tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase naungan berpengaruh terhadap parameter jumlah daun, persentase setek hidup, dan tinggi tanaman yang tumbuh, tetapi tidak berpengaruh nyata pada saat awal muncul tunas. Perlakuan n2 berpengaruh paling baik terhadap persentase setek hidup (64%), jumlah daun (4,1 helai) serta tinggi tunas (4,26 cm).</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong></p><p>Krisan; Setek; Paranet; Iklim mikro</p><p><strong>Abstract </strong></p><p>Banjarbaru as one of the areas in South Kalimantan has good prospects as a chrysanthemum development area. The growth of chrysanthemums is strongly influenced by several factors, such as planting media, availability of water and nutrients, microclimate, temperature, humidity, and a certain intensity of sunlight, so to meet the need for optimal light, shade treatment is required during the growth phase. This study aims to determine the effect of the percentage density in the shade on the growth of chrysanthemum cuttings of the Puspita Nusantara variety. The research was carried out from November to December 2020, at the Experimental Garden of the Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru. The method used in this research is a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the treatment of n1 (shading net with a density of 75%), n2 (shading net with a density of 100%), n3 (shading net with a density of 125%), and n4 (shading net with a density of 150%), which consisted of five groups so that there were 20 experimental units, and each experimental unit contained five plant units. The results showed that the percentage of shade affected the parameters of the number of leaves, the percentage of live cuttings, and plant height that grew, but had no significant effect on the initial emergence of shoots. The n2 treatment had the best effect on the percentage of live cuttings (64%), the number of leaves (4.1 strands), and shoots height (4.26 cm).</p><p> </p>

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