heterogeneous effects
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Lei Zhang ◽  
Shengrui Zhang ◽  
Bei Zhou ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Dan Zhao ◽  

Cyclists occupying motorized vehicle lanes disrupt road traffic order and increase collisions. Exploring the contributing factors could help develop countermeasures to regulate such behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explore the intrinsic features influencing the behavior of cyclists in occupying motorized vehicle lanes at different bicycle facilities. We investigated a total of 34,631 cycling behavior samples in the urban area of Pingdingshan, China. A Bayesian random parameter logit model was used to account for the unobserved heterogeneous effects. The experimental results of all bike facilities demonstrate that the bike type, dividing strip type, bike lane width, temporary on-street parking, and whether it is a working day significantly affect cyclists’ occupying motorized vehicle lane behaviors. Factors associated with unobserved heterogeneity are age, barriers dividing strip, vehicle lane numbers, bike volume, vehicle volume, and daily recording time intervals. Comparing the estimated model of five type bike lane facilities across different dividing strips, we find that cyclists have a significantly different occupying probability and the heterogeneity factors of the various bike facilities also have their focus. When the non-motorized road conditions become more open, the cyclist behavior becomes more random and the heterogeneity factors become broader.

2022 ◽  
pp. 004912412110675
Soojin Park ◽  
Xu Qin ◽  
Chioun Lee

In the field of disparities research, there has been growing interest in developing a counterfactual-based decomposition analysis to identify underlying mediating mechanisms that help reduce disparities in populations. Despite rapid development in the area, most prior studies have been limited to regression-based methods, undermining the possibility of addressing complex models with multiple mediators and/or heterogeneous effects. We propose a novel estimation method that effectively addresses complex models. Moreover, we develop a sensitivity analysis for possible violations of an identification assumption. The proposed method and sensitivity analysis are demonstrated with data from the Midlife Development in the US study to investigate the degree to which disparities in cardiovascular health at the intersection of race and gender would be reduced if the distributions of education and perceived discrimination were the same across intersectional groups.

Xing-Yu Zhang ◽  
Yinhua Bao ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Hao-Sen Chen

Abstract Understanding and alleviating the chemo-mechanical degradation of silicon anodes is a formidable challenge due to the large volume change during operations. Here, for a comprehensive understanding of heterogeneous effects on chemo-mechanical behaviors at the single-particle level, in-situ observation of single-crystalline silicon micropillar electrodes under the inhomogeneous extrinsic conditions, taken as an example, was made. The observation shows that the anisotropic deformation patterns and fracture starting sites are reshaped with the combination of the inhomogeneous electrochemical driving force for charge transfer at the interface between the silicon micropillar and the electrolyte, and crystal orientation-dependent lithiation dynamics. Also, the numerical simulation unravels the underlying mechanisms of deformation and fracture behaviors, and well predicts the relative depth of lithiation at the time of crack initiation under heterogeneous conditions. The results show that heterogeneities arising from extrinsic conditions may induce inhomogeneous mechanical damage and tailor lithiation degree at an active particle level, offering insights into designing large-volume-change battery particles with good mechanical integrity and electrochemical performance under heterogeneous impacts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Harry Aginta ◽  
Masakazu Someya

AbstractWe analyze how regional economic structures affect the impact of monetary policy on rates of inflation across 34 Indonesian provinces. The paper first applies structural factor augmented vector autoregressive model (SFAVAR) to all the 34 provinces based on monthly provincial data in order to measure the length and magnitude of responses of regional inflation to monetary policy shock, derived from the consequential impulse response functions of 34 provinces. In the second step, we analyze the impact of economic structures on the length and magnitude of regional inflationary responses of 34 provinces. We find that the impacts of monetary policy across regions are significantly influenced by economic structural variables such as manufacturing sector share to GDP, mining sector share to GDP, bank lending share to GDP and export share to GDP. In addition, we found the spatial lag, rate of inflation of neighboring provinces, is also statistically significant. In a similar fashion, economic structural variables such as manufacturing sector share to GDP, construction sector share to GDP and investment share to GDP are found statistically significant in explaining regional differences of monetary policy efficiency. Our findings imply economic structures of provinces have to be incorporated to designing monetary policy in Indonesia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 804 ◽  
pp. 150089
Delphin Kamanda Espoir ◽  
Benjamin Mudiangombe Mudiangombe ◽  
Frank Bannor ◽  
Regret Sunge ◽  
Jean-Luc Mubenga Tshitaka

2022 ◽  
Vol 56 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-91
Gracious M. Diiro ◽  
Menale Kassie ◽  
Beatrice Wambui Muriithi ◽  
Clifford Maina Mutero

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Xiaolong Feng ◽  
Jianjun Tang ◽  
Huanguang Qiu

Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the impact mechanism of grassland transfer on herders' production behaviour in pastoral areas. The impact of grassland transfer on herders' livestock production and grazing intensity is quantified.Design/methodology/approach Using the survey data collected for 356 herder households from Inner Mongolia and Gansu, China, quantile regression is employed to assess the heterogeneous effects of grassland transfer on livestock production and grazing intensity. To correct the potential self-selection bias of grassland transfer, the propensity score matching technique is used.Findings Results show that labour, percentage of livestock income and livestock stock are the main factors affecting herders' choice to transfer grassland. The positive effect of grassland transfer on livestock numbers on behalf of those who rented additional grassland is statistically significant but declines with livestock numbers. The sustainability-enhancing effect of grassland transfer on grazing intensity is significant, and the effect becomes larger amongst herder households with higher grazing intensity. The analysis on the impact mechanism shows that grassland transfer significantly promotes the adoption of sustainable grazing modes, such as rotational and seasonal rest grazing, which in turn increases herders' livestock numbers and decreases grazing intensity.Originality/value Few studies have empirically analysed the influence of grassland transfer on livestock numbers and grazing intensity. This study fills this gap by employing a quantile regression to assess the heterogeneous effects of grassland transfer on livestock numbers and grazing intensity, while accounting for self-selection bias. In addition, the authors have examined the influencing mechanisms under which grassland transfer impacts on livestock numbers and grazing intensity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 146511652110637
Dominik Schraff ◽  
Ronja Sczepanski

In this article, we argue that the size and cultural proximity of immigrant populations in people's residential surroundings shape national and European identities. This means that the type of migrant population activates cultural threat perceptions and opportunities for contact to varying degrees. Geocoded survey data from the Netherlands suggests that large non-Western immigrant shares are associated with more exclusive national identities, while mixed contexts with Western and non-Western populations show more inclusive identities. These results suggest that highly diverse areas with mixed immigrant populations hold a potential for more tolerance. In contrast, exclusive national identities become strongly pronounced under the presence of sizeable culturally distant immigrant groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Federica Murmura ◽  
Laura Bravi ◽  
Gilberto Santos

PurposeThe study provides an overview of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) standard and its potential in helping a company to improve its environmental performance. The work aims to investigate a company's perception towards the implementation of the EMAS environmental management system with the benefits and the critical areas derived from it, the overall assessment of the certification and its possible future developments.Design/methodology/approachThe study develops an empirical analysis of Italian EMAS III certified companies, through the administration of a questionnaire to all those Italian companies that were EMAS certified and that provided a valid e-mail address on the EMAS register. Overall, 231 Italian companies took part in the survey.FindingsThe results confirm the heterogeneous effects of an Environmental Management System depending on the company profile and highlight the positive influence of certification on environmental management. It emerges how the EMAS certification is approached more for internal reasons, and therefore gives more internal benefits to companies that implement it. Moreover, the time from which companies have been certified turns out to be a relevant factor for obtaining environmental and organizational benefits connected with EMAS certification.Originality/valueThe recent decrease in EMAS registrations has not been sufficiently studied, leaving unsolved questions for scholars, practitioners and policy-makers. Previous studies used a negativist perspective, identifying the barriers that led to the non-renewal of the certification. The present study aims to focus on the positive factors, which have led still active companies to renew the certification.

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