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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-52
Irum Rauf ◽  
Marian Petre ◽  
Thein Tun ◽  
Tamara Lopez ◽  
Paul Lunn ◽  

Despite the availability of various methods and tools to facilitate secure coding, developers continue to write code that contains common vulnerabilities. It is important to understand why technological advances do not sufficiently facilitate developers in writing secure code. To widen our understanding of developers' behaviour, we considered the complexity of the security decision space of developers using theory from cognitive and social psychology. Our interdisciplinary study reported in this article (1) draws on the psychology literature to provide conceptual underpinnings for three categories of impediments to achieving security goals, (2) reports on an in-depth meta-analysis of existing software security literature that identified a catalogue of factors that influence developers' security decisions, and (3) characterises the landscape of existing security interventions that are available to the developer during coding and identifies gaps. Collectively, these show that different forms of impediments to achieving security goals arise from different contributing factors. Interventions will be more effective where they reflect psychological factors more sensitively and marry technical sophistication, psychological frameworks, and usability. Our analysis suggests “adaptive security interventions” as a solution that responds to the changing security needs of individual developers and a present a proof-of-concept tool to substantiate our suggestion.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
Céline M Gossner ◽  
Nelly Fournet ◽  
Christina Frank ◽  
Beatriz Fernández-Martínez ◽  
Martina Del Manso ◽  

Background Dengue is a disease with major impacts on public health in tropical and subtropical countries. In Europe, in the past decade, few autochthonous outbreaks were described. Aim We aimed to identify factors associated with frequency of dengue virus infection among European travellers and at assessing how surveillance data could support preparedness against autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of travel-related dengue cases reported by European countries from 2015 through 2019. Using flight passenger data, we calculated travellers’ infection rates (TIR). We investigated the following associations: (i) between TIR and incidence rate in selected countries of infection and (ii) between number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Results There were 11,478 travel-related dengue cases and the TIR was 2.8 cases per 100,000 travellers. Most cases were infected in Asia (71%), predominantly in south-eastern Asia. The TIR was highest among travellers returning from Asia (6.1/100,000). There was an association between the incidence rate in the country of infection and the TIR but no association between the number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks in Europe. Conclusions The likelihood of infection in travellers is a function of the ongoing epidemiological situation in the country of exposure. The number of travel-related cases alone is not sufficient to estimate the likelihood of autochthonous outbreaks where vectors are present in Europe. Additional contributing factors such as adequate vectorial capacity and suitable environmental conditions are required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
McCall Walker ◽  
Paras Patel ◽  
Osung Kwon ◽  
Ryan J Koene ◽  
Daniel A. Duprez ◽  

Abstract: Hypertension is one of the most well-established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. Long-standing untreated hypertension leads to structural remodeling and electrophysiologic alterations causing an atrial myopathy that forms a vulnerable substrate for the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic, inflammatory, hormonal, and autonomic changes all appear to be important contributing factors. Furthermore, hypertension is also associated with several atrial fibrillation-related comorbidities. As such, hypertension may represent an important target for therapy in atrial fibrillation. Clinicians should be aware of pitfalls of the blood pressure measurement in atrial fibrillation. While the auscultatory method is preferred, the use of automated devices appears to be an acceptable method in the ambulatory setting. There are pathophysiologic bases and emerging clinical evidence suggesting the benefit of renin-angiotensin system inhibition in risk reduction of atrial fibrillation development particularly in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular dysfunction. A better understanding of hypertension’s pathophysiologic link to atrial fibrillation may lead to the development of novel therapies for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation. Finally, future studies are needed to address optimal blood pressure goal to minimize the risk of atrial fibrillation-related complications.

Minaam Farooq ◽  
Musa Ali Rizvi ◽  
Waaiz Ali Wajid ◽  
Mohammad Ashraf ◽  
Mukarram Farooq ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 889-899
O. B. Shvabskaia ◽  
O. V. Izmailova ◽  
N. S. Karamnova ◽  
O. M. Drapkina

The association of hyperuricemia (HU) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and kidney disease has been demonstrated in numerous studies. НU is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of gout and is associated with an increase in overall and cardiovascular mortality. НU is included in the list of factors determining cardiovascular risk. According to epidemiological studies, there is a high prevalence of HU in the world and its increase in recent decades. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of НU. Non-modifiable factors include gender, age, genetic factors, and modifiable factors include diet and lifestyle. Nutritional unbalances, increased life expectancy, increased prevalence of obesity, and increased use of drugs (especially diuretics) are seen as contributing factors to the rise in НU. The review was carried out to summarize the available information on the effect of dietary habits, individual foods and nutrients on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of developing HU. The review presents the results of scientific studies demonstrating the relationship of НU with the consumption of foods rich in purines (offal, red meat, fish, seafood, legumes), alcohol consumption, drinks sweetened with fructose, coffee, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Diet correction is an important and necessary step in the prevention and treatment of НU. The article reviews the basic principles of dietary management in HU and provides dietary recommendations for patients. For effective prevention and treatment of НU, a mandatory correction of the diet is required.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Shaikha Al Suwaidi ◽  
Baidaa Jasem Alakasheh ◽  
Labib S. Al-Ozaibi

High rates of thromboembolic events have been seen in cases of COVID-19. Here, we report a case of 23-year-old previously healthy female presented with left-sided abdominal pain associated with vomiting. The computed tomography scan showed multiple ill-defined wedge-shaped low attenuating areas of the spleen, suggesting splenic infarction. In the absence of other thromboembolic contributing factors, we believe this was a thromboembolic event in splenic circulation in relation to COVID-19 infection. Our case adds to the evidence of an arterial thrombotic event in a noncritical COVID-19 patient, emphasizing the importance of addressing thromboembolism diagnosis and management measures to avoid potentially deadly consequences.

Dong Liu ◽  
Ya Zhang ◽  
Cui-Cui Wang ◽  
Xiao-Hong E ◽  
Hui Zuo

Background: The association of iron metabolism or status with the stroke risk remains unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron metabolism or status and stroke risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Methods: Overall, 8589 in the CHNS in 2009, and 7290 participants between 2009 and 2015 were included in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. Markers included hemoglobin, ferritin (FET), transferrin (TRF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTRF-R), and ratio of sTRF-R/log FET (sTfR-F index). Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the associations between those markers and risk of stroke. Age, gender, high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), body mass index (BMI), current smoking, drinking status, diabetes and hypertension were included as potential confounding factors. Results: We observed longitudinal associations of hemoglobin (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.15 – 2.06, P = 0.004), and sTfR-F index (HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46 – 0.99, P = 0.044) with stroke risk among the participants whose BMI ≤ 23 kg/m2. In addition, FET levels were significantly associated with stroke risk among female (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.00 – 2.09, P = 0.049) after a median of 6.1 years follow-up. Hemoglobin, FET, TRF, sTRF-R, and sTfR-F index were not associated with the risk of stroke in overall analyses. Conclusion: FET among female, hemoglobin and sTfR-F index among those BMI ≤ 23 kg/m2 may be contributing factors for stroke.

Lei Zhang ◽  
Shengrui Zhang ◽  
Bei Zhou ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Dan Zhao ◽  

Cyclists occupying motorized vehicle lanes disrupt road traffic order and increase collisions. Exploring the contributing factors could help develop countermeasures to regulate such behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explore the intrinsic features influencing the behavior of cyclists in occupying motorized vehicle lanes at different bicycle facilities. We investigated a total of 34,631 cycling behavior samples in the urban area of Pingdingshan, China. A Bayesian random parameter logit model was used to account for the unobserved heterogeneous effects. The experimental results of all bike facilities demonstrate that the bike type, dividing strip type, bike lane width, temporary on-street parking, and whether it is a working day significantly affect cyclists’ occupying motorized vehicle lane behaviors. Factors associated with unobserved heterogeneity are age, barriers dividing strip, vehicle lane numbers, bike volume, vehicle volume, and daily recording time intervals. Comparing the estimated model of five type bike lane facilities across different dividing strips, we find that cyclists have a significantly different occupying probability and the heterogeneity factors of the various bike facilities also have their focus. When the non-motorized road conditions become more open, the cyclist behavior becomes more random and the heterogeneity factors become broader.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Monirul Hasan ◽  
Siddhartha Saggar ◽  
Atul Shukla ◽  
Fatima Bencheikh ◽  
Jan Sobus ◽  

AbstractPolaron-induced exciton quenching in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF)-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) can lead to external quantum efficiency (EQE) roll-off and device degradation. In this study, singlet-polaron annihilation (SPA) and triplet-polaron annihilation (TPA) were investigated under steady-state conditions and their relative contributions to EQE roll-off were quantified, using experimentally obtained parameters. It is observed that both TPA and SPA can lead to efficiency roll-off in 2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) doped OLEDs. Charge imbalance and singlet-triplet annihilation (STA) were found to be the main contributing factors, whereas the device degradation process is mainly dominated by TPA. It is also shown that the impact of electric field-induced exciton dissociation is negligible under the DC operation regime (electric field < 0.5 MV cm−1). Through theoretical simulation, it is demonstrated that improvement to the charge recombination rate may reduce the effect of polaron-induced quenching, and thus significantly decrease the EQE roll-off.

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