Since BC, the construction of cities has been started in the Mongolian Plateau with the establishment of dynasties, but many were turned into ruins. However, the Tibetan Buddhist temples built after the 16th century, which are an indispensable element in the process of settling the Mongolians from nomadic life, have been relatively well preserved in Inner Mongolia. These temples have been thought to be the epitome of the Mongolian economy, culture, art, and construction technology. Therefore, it has a great significance to research them systematically. Interestingly, these temples in Mongolia were originated from Inner Mongolia, which is located on the south side of Mongolia. The architectural design of these temples has been primarily influenced by Chinese and Tibetan temple architecture, suggesting that the temples appear to be considered a vital sample for studying temple architecture in Mongolia or East Asia. So far, there is still no study systematically on temple architecture in Inner Mongolia. Therefore, this research aims to study the arrangement plan of Inner Mongolian Tibetan Buddhist temples, which is the most important factor to consider in the first stage of temple construction.
Hamugetu’s paper discusses the relationships between tradition and
modernity through an examination of the Seventh lCang-skya’s activities
in China and Inner Mongolia in the late Qing period. Articulating
a modern ideology of the separation of church and state, he sought to
protect the interests of Tibetan Buddhist society from both the Chinese
government and Inner Mongolian nationalists through accommodating
both forces, while simultaneously seeking to reform Tibetan Buddhism in
Inner Mongolia along modernist lines. Striving to protect the interests of
the Buddhist community, the struggle of the Seventh lCang-skya between
the system of jasak lamas and the separation of religion and state is typical
of the issues facing the Tibetan Buddhist world in the early 20th century.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated forage crops in the world. China is the second largest producer of alfalfa in terms of the planting area worldwide, with Gansu, Henan, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi provinces being the production hubs. Alfalfa viruses have been reported on a small-scale survey in some of these areas, but they have not been well characterized. In the present study, seven viruses were detected in 12 fields of 10 cities/counties of the four abovementioned provinces by high-throughput sequencing and assembly of small RNA. Their incidence, distribution, and genetic diversity were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/reverse transcription-PCR and clone sequencing. The results showed that alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), pea streak virus (PeSV), lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV), alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV), Medicago sativa alphapartitivirus 1 (MsAPV1), MsAPV2, and alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV) were the main viruses infecting alfalfa in four examined provinces. AMV and MsAPV1 had the highest incidences in all 4 provinces. SDT analysis of the 7 viruses isolated in China revealed a highly conserved among AMV, LTSV, ADV, MsAPV1, MsAPV2, and ALCV, but the sequence was a high variation between China isolates to abroad isolates in PeSV, ADV, and ALCV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ADV in Inner Mongolia and Gansu, ALCV in Inner Mongolia, MsAPV1 and MsAPV2 in all 4 provinces, and PeSV and LTSV in China. These findings provide a basis for future research on the genetic evolution of alfalfa viruses in China and on strategies to prevent diseases in alfalfa caused by these viruses.