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2022 ◽  
Annette F. Govindarajan ◽  
Luke McCartin ◽  
Allan Adams ◽  
Elizabeth Allan ◽  
Abhimanyu Belani ◽  

Metabarcoding analysis of environmental DNA samples is a promising new tool for marine biodiversity and conservation. Typically, seawater samples are obtained using Niskin bottles and filtered to collect eDNA. However, standard sample volumes are small relative to the scale of the environment, conventional collection strategies are limited, and the filtration process is time consuming. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new large-volume eDNA sampler with in situ filtration, capable of taking up to 12 samples per deployment. We conducted three deployments of our sampler on the robotic vehicle Mesobot in the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and collected samples from 20 to 400 m depth. We compared the large volume (~40-60 liters) samples collected by Mesobot with small volume (~2 liters) samples collected using the conventional CTD-mounted Niskin bottle approach. We sequenced the V9 region of 18S rRNA, which detects a broad range of invertebrate taxa, and found that while both methods detected biodiversity changes associated with depth, our large volume samples detected approximately 66% more taxa than the CTD small volume samples. We found that the fraction of the eDNA signal originating from metazoans relative to the total eDNA signal decreased with sampling depth, indicating that larger volume samples may be especially important for detecting metazoans in mesopelagic and deep ocean environments. We also noted substantial variability in biological replicates from both the large volume Mesobot and small volume CTD sample sets. Both of the sample sets also identified taxa that the other did not; although the number of unique taxa associated with the Mesobot samples was almost four times larger than those from the CTD samples. Large volume eDNA sampling with in situ filtration, particularly when coupled with robotic platforms, has great potential for marine biodiversity surveys, and we discuss practical methodological and sampling considerations for future applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 9
Giancarlo Saal-Zapata ◽  
Basavaraj Ghodke ◽  
Melanie Walker ◽  
Ivethe Pregúntegui-Loayza ◽  
Rodolfo Rodríguez-Varela

Background: Large volume coils are an alternative to conventional coils for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, there are no published reports documenting occlusion and complication rates in medium and large intracranial aneurysms. Therefore, we present our results in this subgroup of aneurysms. Methods: A single-center, retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with Penumbra coils 400 in aneurysms ≥7 mm was performed. Demographics, aneurysm features, procedural details, intraoperative complications, clinical outcomes, and occlusion rates were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three patients were included for analysis, and a total of 33 intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. Mean age was 57.6 years (SD ± 12.4) and 85% of the patients were women. Large aneurysms represented 46% of cases. Paraclinoid (55%) followed by posterior communicating (30.3%) aneurysms was the most frequently treated. Ruptured and saccular aneurysms were found in 49% and 63% of the cases, respectively. The mean aneurysmal dimensions were 14.2 mm width, 11.9 mm length, 5.4 mm neck, and 2.4 dome-to-neck ratio. A dome-neck ratio <2 was identified in 39% of cases. The mean number of coils per aneurysm was 4.8. Immediate modified Raymond–Roy Grades 1, 2, and 3A were achieved in 15%, 21%, and 64%, respectively. Twenty-six patients were evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 11 months, with an adequate occlusion of 92% and a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin score ≤2) in 96% of patients. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment with PC400 coils is an effective and safe option for medium and large intracranial aneurysms with high occlusion rates, few complications, and good clinical outcomes at follow-up.

2022 ◽  
Vol 327 ◽  
pp. 163-171
Ming Fan Qi ◽  
Yong Lin Kang ◽  
Yuan Hao Zheng ◽  
Ji Cheng Wang ◽  
Gu Nan Li ◽  

An efficient and low-cost aluminum alloy uniform solidification control technology, namely, air-cooled stirring rod (ACSR) process, has been developed for preparing large volume semisolid slurry. The semisolid slurry preparation process is connected with the die-casting machine to form multiple integrated intelligent rheological die-casting production lines for the efficient preparation of rheological die-casting of large-scale thin-walled aluminum alloys. At present, the ACSR process can produce 40 kg of large-volume semisolid slurry with a solid phase ratio of 25% to 35% within 30 s. This rheological die-casting process has been industrialized for the preparation of high-quality aluminum alloy large-scale thin-walled parts, such as new energy vehicles and 5G communications. Typical products produced by this process include heat dissipation housings for 5G communications, filter housings, antenna chassis and three-electric structural shell, end cover, and ABS system valve body for new energy vehicles. Compared with traditional die castings, aluminum alloy castings prepared by the new process not only have fine and spherical microstructures, good surface quality, and fewer internal pores but also enjoys more excellent mechanical properties and thermal conductivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Minas Karagiannis ◽  
Panagiotis Giannakopoulos ◽  
Aggeliki Sardeli ◽  
Ourania Tsotsorou ◽  
Dimitra Bacharaki ◽  

Xing-Yu Zhang ◽  
Yinhua Bao ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Hao-Sen Chen

Abstract Understanding and alleviating the chemo-mechanical degradation of silicon anodes is a formidable challenge due to the large volume change during operations. Here, for a comprehensive understanding of heterogeneous effects on chemo-mechanical behaviors at the single-particle level, in-situ observation of single-crystalline silicon micropillar electrodes under the inhomogeneous extrinsic conditions, taken as an example, was made. The observation shows that the anisotropic deformation patterns and fracture starting sites are reshaped with the combination of the inhomogeneous electrochemical driving force for charge transfer at the interface between the silicon micropillar and the electrolyte, and crystal orientation-dependent lithiation dynamics. Also, the numerical simulation unravels the underlying mechanisms of deformation and fracture behaviors, and well predicts the relative depth of lithiation at the time of crack initiation under heterogeneous conditions. The results show that heterogeneities arising from extrinsic conditions may induce inhomogeneous mechanical damage and tailor lithiation degree at an active particle level, offering insights into designing large-volume-change battery particles with good mechanical integrity and electrochemical performance under heterogeneous impacts.

2022 ◽  
Anand Pandit ◽  
Arif Jalal ◽  
Ahmed Toma ◽  
Parashkev Nachev

Abstract Healthcare dashboards make key information about service and clinical outcomes available to staff in an easy-to-understand format. Most dashboards are limited to providing insights based on group-level inference, rather than individual prediction. Here, we evaluate a dashboard which could analyze and forecast acute neurosurgical referrals based on 10,033 referrals made to a large volume tertiary neurosciences center in central London, U.K., from the start of the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown period until October 2021. As anticipated, referral volumes significantly increased in this period, largely due to an increase in spinal referrals. Applying a range of validated time-series forecasting methods, we found that referrals were projected to increase beyond this time-point. Using a mixed-methods approach, we determined that the dashboard was usable, feasible, and acceptable to key stakeholders. Dashboards provide an effective way of visualizing acute surgical referral data and for predicting future volume without the need for data-science expertise.

2022 ◽  
Qingze Li ◽  
Xiping Chen ◽  
Lei Xie ◽  
Tiexin Han ◽  
Jiacheng Sun ◽  

Abstract Here, simultaneous in-situ calibration of pressures and temperatures was performed in a hinge-type second-stage cubic large volume press (LVP) up to 15 GPa and 1400 K by an acoustic travel-time approach. Based on the recently reported P-t S and P-T-t P -t S equations for Al2O3 buffer rod, the cell pressures and temperatures in the chamber of LVP were in-situ determined, in comparison with those by conventional off-line (or fixed-points) pressure calibration method and direct thermocouple measurement, respectively. It is found that the cell pressures of the LVP chamber are significantly reduced after annealing at simultaneous high pressures and high temperatures, owing to the stress relaxation as accumulate in the LVP chamber. This acoustic travel-time method is validated to be a good way for precise determination of thermal (cell) pressures at high temperature conditions, and is of great importance and necessity to conduct in-situ physical property measurements under extreme high P-T conditions, especially when the precious synchrotron X-ray/neutron diffraction beams are not available.

Yi Luan ◽  
Hongfeng Yang ◽  
Baoshan Wang ◽  
Wei Yang ◽  
Weitao Wang ◽  

Abstract Temporal changes of seismic velocities in the Earth’s crust can be induced by stress perturbations or material damage from reasons such as strong ground motion, volcanic activities, and atmospheric effects. However, monitoring the temporal changes remains challenging, because most of them generally exist in small travel-time differences of seismic data. Here, we present an excellent case of daily variations of the subsurface structure detected using a large-volume air-gun source array of one-month experiment in Binchuan, Yunnan, southwestern China. The seismic data were recorded by 12 stations within ∼10 km away from the source and used to detect velocity change in the crust using the deconvolution method and sliding window cross-correlation method, which can eliminate the “intercept” error when cutting the air-gun signals and get the real subsurface variations. Furthermore, the multichannel singular spectral analysis method is used to separate the daily change (∼1 cycle per day) from the “long-period” change (&lt;1 cycle per day) or noise. The result suggests that the daily velocity changes at the two nearest stations, 53277 (offset ∼700 m) and 53278 (offset ∼2.3 km), are well correlated with air temperature variation with a time lag of 5.0 ± 1.5 hr, which reflects that the velocity variations at the subsurface are likely attributed to thermoelastic strain. In contrast, both daily and long-period velocity changes at distant stations correlate better with the varying air pressure than the temperature, indicating that the velocity variations at deeper depth are dominated by the elastic loading of air pressure. Our results demonstrate that the air-gun source is a powerful tool to detect the velocity variation of the shallow crust media.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Katharina Allion ◽  
Lisa Kiemle ◽  
Stephan Fuchs

Various sampling strategies come into operation to monitor water quality in rivers. Most frequently, grab samples are taken, but they are not suitable for recording the highly dynamic transport of solids and solid-bound pollutants. Composite samples reduce the influence of input and transport dynamics and are better suited to determine the annual river loads. Large-volume samplers (LVSs) produce both a composite sample over a long period of time and an amount of solids which allows for further analyses. In the small sub-catchment area of the Kraichbach river in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) two LVSs have been installed to sample the river flow. The concentration of solids and phosphorus in the supernatant water and the settled sediment in the sampler have been determined and mean concentrations have been derived. Annual river loads were calculated in combination with discharge data from the nearby gauging station. Two sampling strategies of the LVS were tested and compared. For the first strategy, the LVS was used to collect quasi-continuous composite samples throughout the year, whereas, with the second strategy, samples were taken specifically for different flow conditions (low, mean and high flow). This study compares the advantages and constraints of both strategies. Results indicate that the first strategy is better suited to determine annual river loads. Quasi-continuous large-volume composite sampling is recommended for further monitoring campaigns.

Soft Matter ◽  
2022 ◽  
Courtenay Patterson ◽  
Bart Dietrich ◽  
Claire Wilson ◽  
Andrew R Mount ◽  
Dave Adams

The fabrication of protected peptide-based hydrogels on electrode surfaces can be achieved by employing the electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone to benzoquinone, liberating protons at the electrode-solution interface. The localised reduction...

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