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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 511-517
Xiao-Xiao Jin ◽  
Ling Sun ◽  
Xiao-Li Lai ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Mei-Li Liang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Amandine Mayelle ◽  
Capucine Hazebrouck ◽  
Mohamad El Haj ◽  
Daniel C. Mograbi ◽  
Pascal Antoine

Objective: To understand awareness and fluctuations of awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is fruitful to consider the objects of awareness, e.g., cognitive functioning or recognition of the disease, as well as the mechanisms and modes of expression underlying awareness. With a holistic and discourse-centered approach, we aimed to identify different awareness profiles and test whether these profiles were stable or whether transitions from one profile to another occurred over short time intervals.Methods: Twenty-eight residents of nursing homes with a diagnosis of AD participated in four semistructured interviews at biweekly intervals. These interviews were cluster analyzed to determine profiles of awareness. A Markov chain was applied to model their fluctuation.Results: Five awareness profiles were observed that differed in terms of objects and underlying processes. Awareness proved to be quite stable for four of the five profiles. Interindividual variability in awareness was also observed through numerous different trajectories that were identified.Discussion: Self-awareness and disease awareness are characterized by profiles that vary subtly between individuals. Fluctuations in awareness underscore the need to employ assessment intervals that closely reflect daily life in institutions.

Lei Zhang ◽  
Shengrui Zhang ◽  
Bei Zhou ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Dan Zhao ◽  

Cyclists occupying motorized vehicle lanes disrupt road traffic order and increase collisions. Exploring the contributing factors could help develop countermeasures to regulate such behaviors. The purpose of this study is to explore the intrinsic features influencing the behavior of cyclists in occupying motorized vehicle lanes at different bicycle facilities. We investigated a total of 34,631 cycling behavior samples in the urban area of Pingdingshan, China. A Bayesian random parameter logit model was used to account for the unobserved heterogeneous effects. The experimental results of all bike facilities demonstrate that the bike type, dividing strip type, bike lane width, temporary on-street parking, and whether it is a working day significantly affect cyclists’ occupying motorized vehicle lane behaviors. Factors associated with unobserved heterogeneity are age, barriers dividing strip, vehicle lane numbers, bike volume, vehicle volume, and daily recording time intervals. Comparing the estimated model of five type bike lane facilities across different dividing strips, we find that cyclists have a significantly different occupying probability and the heterogeneity factors of the various bike facilities also have their focus. When the non-motorized road conditions become more open, the cyclist behavior becomes more random and the heterogeneity factors become broader.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Hironao Matsumoto ◽  
Rodolfo Coccioni ◽  
Fabrizio Frontalini ◽  
Kotaro Shirai ◽  
Luigi Jovane ◽  

AbstractDuring the mid-Cretaceous, the Earth experienced several environmental perturbations, including an extremely warm climate and Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Submarine volcanic episodes associated with formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs) may have triggered these perturbations. The osmium isotopic ratio (187Os/188Os) is a suitable proxy for tracing hydrothermal activity associated with the LIPs formation, but 187Os/188Os data from the mid-Cretaceous are limited to short time intervals. Here we provide a continuous high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record covering all mid-Cretaceous OAEs. Several OAEs (OAE1a, Wezel and Fallot events, and OAE2) correspond to unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, suggesting that they were triggered by massive submarine volcanic episodes. However, minor OAEs (OAE1c and OAE1d), which do not show pronounced unradiogenic 187Os/188Os shifts, were likely caused by enhanced monsoonal activity. Because the subaerial LIPs volcanic episodes and Circum-Pacific volcanism correspond to the highest temperature and pCO2 during the mid-Cretaceous, they may have caused the hot mid-Cretaceous climate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Rebecca Rimbach ◽  
Yosuke Yamada ◽  
Hiroyuki Sagayama ◽  
Philip N. Ainslie ◽  
Lene F. Anderson ◽  

AbstractLow total energy expenditure (TEE, MJ/d) has been a hypothesized risk factor for weight gain, but repeatability of TEE, a critical variable in longitudinal studies of energy balance, is understudied. We examine repeated doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements of TEE in 348 adults and 47 children from the IAEA DLW Database (mean ± SD time interval: 1.9 ± 2.9 y) to assess repeatability of TEE, and to examine if TEE adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass is associated with changes in weight or body composition. Here, we report that repeatability of TEE is high for adults, but not children. Bivariate Bayesian mixed models show no among or within-individual correlation between body composition (fat mass or percentage) and unadjusted TEE in adults. For adults aged 20–60 y (N = 267; time interval: 7.4 ± 12.2 weeks), increases in adjusted TEE are associated with weight gain but not with changes in body composition; results are similar for subjects with intervals >4 weeks (N = 53; 29.1 ± 12.8 weeks). This suggests low TEE is not a risk factor for, and high TEE is not protective against, weight or body fat gain over the time intervals tested.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Nuray Özkahraman ◽  
Nilüfer Bölükbaşı Balcıoğlu ◽  
Merva Soluk Tekkesin ◽  
Yusuf Altundağ ◽  
Serdar Yalçın

Background and Objectives: Dentin grafts have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties and are considered as an alternative to autogenous graft. This study evaluates the efficacy of autogenous mineralized dentin graft (AMDG) alone or with xenograft and compares it with those of various graft materials used in the treatment of intraosseous bone defects. Materials and Methods: The third incisor teeth of six sheep (2–3 years old) were extracted and AMDG was obtained. Six defects were prepared on each tibia of these six sheep: empty defect (group E); autogenous graft (group A), dentin graft (group D), xenograft (group X), autogenous + xenograft (group A + X) and dentin + xenograft (group D + X). Three sheep in each group were sacrificed in the post-operative 3rd and 6th week and the histologic analyses were performed. Results: The D and D + X groups showed histological features similar to the other groups in the 3rd and 6th weeks. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the rates of new bone formation between the D and D + X groups (p = 1.0) and the other groups at both time intervals (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Similar results observed in this study between groups A, D, X, A + X and D + X demonstrate that AMDG can be successfully used in the treatment of intraosseous bone defects. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of dentin grafts in different types of indications.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030157422110562
Santosh Rahul Tavva ◽  
Suresh Gorantla ◽  
Vizia Muddada ◽  
Tivanani V D Mahendra ◽  
Ramoji Rao Lenka ◽  

Objective To evaluate the quantity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles released into the artificial salivary medium from orthodontic composite impregnated with 1% weight/weight (w/w) and 5% w/w titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) used for bonding metal brackets, thereby eventually comprehending the permissible levels. Materials and Method Eighty freshly extracted teeth for orthodontic treatment were divided into 2 groups of 40 teeth each and were bonded with brackets containing 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and placed in an artificial salivary medium. Quantification of 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium nanoparticles was done using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy for 4 timely periods 24 h, 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Results In the teeth that received 1% TiO2, the amount of titanium released was greatest in 2 months with no significant release at later intervals. In the second group that received 5%, there was a significant release of titanium at all intervals, with highest release at second month. On comparing the 2 concentrations at 4 different time intervals, the quantities were significantly greater in the 5% group at all time frames, thus implying a significant increase in titanium released with an increase in concentration from 1% to 5%. Conclusion Titanium release was higher in 5% w/w composite containing nanoparticles than 1% w/w composite containing nanoparticles, and 1% and 5% concentrations can be used safely and are within the permissible limits.

Wolfgang I. Schöllhorn ◽  
Nikolas Rizzi ◽  
Agnė Slapšinskaitė-Dackevičienė ◽  
Nuno Leite

This critical review considers the epistemological and historical background of the theoretical construct of motor learning for a more differentiated understanding. More than simply reflecting critically on the models that are used to solve problems—whether they are applied in therapy, physical education, or training practice—this review seeks to respond constructively to the recent discussion caused by the replication crisis in life sciences. To this end, an in-depth review of contemporary motor learning approaches is provided, with a pragmatism-oriented clarification of the researcher’s intentions on fundamentals (what?), subjects (for whom?), time intervals (when?), and purpose (for what?). The complexity in which the processes of movement acquisition, learning, and refinement take place removes their predictable and linear character and therefore, from an applied point of view, invites a great deal of caution when trying to make generalization claims. Particularly when we attempt to understand and study these phenomena in unpredictable and dynamic contexts, it is recommended that scientists and practitioners seek to better understand the central role that the individual and their situatedness plays in the system. In this way, we will be closer to making a meaningful and authentic contribution to the advancement of knowledge, and not merely for the sake of renaming inventions.

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