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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Karim ◽  
M. Shoaib ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
S. Nisar ◽  
S. Riaz ◽  
...  

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


2022 ◽  
Vol 430 ◽  
pp. 132649
Author(s):  
Balaraman Vedhanarayanan ◽  
Cheng-chau Chiu ◽  
Jakub Regner ◽  
Zdenek Sofer ◽  
K.C. Seetha Lakshmi ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 403-423
Author(s):  
Jacqualine Spence ◽  
Pierre Benckendorff ◽  
P. Monica Chien
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Zhipeng Li ◽  
Haoyi Yang ◽  
Chenhua Zheng ◽  
Xiping Du ◽  
Hui Ni ◽  
...  

Astaxanthin is an important natural resource that is widely found in marine environments. Metabolic regulation is an effective method for improving astaxanthin production in Phaffia rhodozyma. Most studies have focused on single regulators, which have limited effects. In this study, 16 metabolic regulators were screened to improve astaxanthin production in high-yield and wild-type strains. Fluconazol and glutamic acid increased astaxanthin volumetric yield in MVP14 by 25.8 and 30.9%, respectively, while ethanol increased astaxanthin volumetric yield in DSM626, 29.3%. Furthermore, six additives that inhibit the competing pathways and promote the main pathway for astaxanthin synthesis were selected for combination treatment. We found that the optimal combination was penicillin, ethanol, triclosan, and fluconazol, which increased astaxanthin cell yield by 51%. Therefore, we suggest that simultaneously promoting the master pathways (mevalonate) and inhibiting competing pathways (fatty acid synthesis and ergosterol) is the best strategy to improve astaxanthin cell yield. Moreover, regulators of the biomass pathway should be avoided to improve cell yield. This study provides a technical basis for the utilisation of astaxanthin in P. rhodozyma.


Author(s):  
Negasu Gamachu Dinsa ◽  
Kassahun Desalegn Yalew

Background: The advantage of intercropping is the more efficient utilization of the all available resources and the increased productivity compared with each sole crop of the mixture. If cowpea and Lablab intercropping with Napier grass its nutritional values was improved. Methods: The experimental design was factorial combination arrangement in randomized complete block design with three inter and intra spaces (1 m × 0.5 m, 0.75 m × 0.5 m, 0.5 m × 0.5 m) and intercropping with two tropical legumes. Treatments were T1= Pure Napier grass at 1 m row spacing, T2= Napier grass intercropped with lablab at 0.75 m row spacing, T3= Napier grass intercropped with cowpea at 0.5 m row spacing, T4= Napier grass intercropped with cowpea at 1 m row spacing, T5= Napier grass intercropped with lablab at 0.5 m row spacing, T6= Pure Napier grass at 0.75 m row spacing, T7= Napier grass intercropped with lablab at 1 m row spacing, T8= Napier grass intercropped with cowpea at 0.75 m row spacing, T9= Pure Napier grass at 0.5 m row spacing and totally nine treatments were used. Soil samples were collected before and after forage harvested. Result: Napier grass intercropped with lablab and cowpea at different planting densities had significant effect (P less than 0.05) on the in vitro dry and organic matter digestibility (IVDMD, IVOMD) and increased digestibility. The OM degradation constant was significantly different (P less than 0.05) but ‘ED’ was not and for DM degradation ‘c’ and ‘b’ were non-significant (P greater than 0.05) for Napier grass intercropped with lablab and cowpea at different planting densities. In conclusion, Napier grass intercropped with lablab and cowpea at a planting density of 24 plants m-2 was better choice for high yield and forage quality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Fei Zheng ◽  
Meijing Zhang ◽  
Yiwen Zhen ◽  
Jianhua Yuan ◽  
Wenming Zhao ◽  
...  

The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a “scar-like” crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a “scar-like” crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.


Author(s):  
Devi Suresh ◽  
M. Ananthan ◽  
C. Vanniarajan ◽  
P. Balasubramanian ◽  
T. Sivakumar ◽  
...  

Background: MDU-1 is a high yielding, indeterminate cluster bean variety. In order to develop determinate mutant with high yield, MDU-1 cluster bean variety was irradiated using gamma rays, electron beam and combination of gamma rays and EMS with different doses and the variability induced in M5 generations were studied. Methods: Twenty one best individual plants from M4 generation were selected based on plant height and higher yield and forwarded to M5 generation where they were evaluated in RBD with three replications. Fourteen non-segregating mutant lines with desirable traits were identified in M5 generation and were evaluated for variability along with the parent MDU1. Result: Five best mutant lines namely ACMC-020-04, ACMC-020-11, ACMC-020-08, ACMC-020-10 and ACMC-020-11 were selected from the 14 accessions based on per se performance and variability analysis. The selected mutants needs to be forwarded for stability testing in different environments.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zheng Zhang ◽  
Penghui He ◽  
Shiying Hu ◽  
Yanqing Yu ◽  
Xiaoting Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: The production of some bio-chemicals affected by the cell growth. This study aimed at promoting the cell growth by overexpressing the synthesis of peptidoglycans tetrapeptide tail components to improve poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production. Results: L-alanine, D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine are primary precursors for the synthesis of peptidoglycans. The addition of L-alanine and D-alanine significantly increased both the cell growth and production of γ-PGA. Then, several genes encoding key enzymes for L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine biosynthesis were overexpressed respectively, including ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase), dal (encoding alanine racemase) and ddl (encoding D-alanine ligase). The results showed that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased the production of γ-PGA by 19.72%, 15.91% and 60.90%, and increased the microbial biomass by 15.58%, 18.34% and 49.85%, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that the overexpression of genes ald , dal and ddl increased γ-PGA production mainly by enhancing cell growth rather than providing more precursors. Conclusions: This work illustrated the importance of the L/D-alanine and D-alanyl-D-alanine synthesis to the cell growth and the high yield of γ-PGA, and provided an effective strategy for producing γ-PGA .


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 195
Author(s):  
Maryana Handula ◽  
Marjolein Verhoeven ◽  
Kuo-Ting Chen ◽  
Joost Haeck ◽  
Marion de de Jong ◽  
...  

Nuclear and optical dual-modality probes can be of great assistance in prostate cancer localization, providing the means for both preoperative nuclear imaging and intraoperative surgical guidance. We developed a series of probes based on the backbone of the established GRPR-targeting radiotracer NeoB. The inverse electron demand of the Diels–Alder reaction was used to integrate the sulfo-cyanine 5 dye. Indium-111 radiolabeling, stability studies and a competition binding assay were carried out. Pilot biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, using the best two dual-labeled probes. The dual-modality probes were radiolabeled with a high yield (> 92%), were proven to be hydrophilic and demonstrated high stability in mouse serum (> 94% intact labeled ligand at 4 h). The binding affinity for the GRPR was in the nanomolar range (21.9–118.7 nM). SPECT/CT images at 2 h p.i. clearly visualized the tumor xenograft and biodistribution studies, after scanning confirmed the high tumor uptake (8.47 ± 0.46%ID/g and 6.90 ± 0.81%ID/g for probe [111In]In-12 and [111In]In-15, respectively). Receptor specificity was illustrated with blocking studies, and co-localization of the radioactive and fluorescent signal was verified by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. Although optimal tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-kidney ratios might not yet have been reached due to the prolonged blood circulation, our probes are promising candidates for the preoperative and intraoperative visualization of GRPR-positive prostate cancer.


Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Yaqiong Wu ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Zhengjin Huang ◽  
Chunhong Zhang ◽  
Lianfei Lyu ◽  
...  

Blueberry belongs to the genus Vaccinium L. in the Ericaceae and is an economically important shrub that produces small berries that are rich in nutrients. There were differences in the appearance of blueberry leaves under different shade treatments. To explore the differences in metabolites in blueberry leaves under different shading treatments, nontargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabonomic analysis was performed. Different shade intensities resulted in significant differences in the contents of metabolites. A total of 6879 known metabolites were detected, including 750 significantly differentially expressed metabolites, including mainly lipids and lipid-like molecules and phenylpropanoid and polyketide superclass members. Based on a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched. The results of this study provide a reference and scientific basis for the establishment of a high-quality and high-yield shaded blueberry cultivation system.


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