stress conditions
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Younas ◽  
W. Xiukang ◽  
Z. Yousaf ◽  
S. Fiaz ◽  
A. Riaz ◽  

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.

Jenifer Lolita C

Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we were attempted to study characterization of bZIP, a transcription factor from a climate smart cereal finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). Seeds of Eleusine coracana (finger millet) was purchase from local market and were grown under field conditions drought and salt stress conditions. In this study, EcbZIP gene was isolated from finger millet, cloned into DH5α cells, screened by using colony PCR and expression analysis in response to two abiotic stresses was carried out by using qRT PCR. EcbZIP coding DNA sequence and protein sequence were retrieved from NCBI Nucleotide Database and Genpept of Accession number KP033192.1 and AJP67539.1 and validated by using SMART (simple modular architecture tool) Domain Tool. Cloning and expression studies were carried out using standardized molecular biology protocol. Results depicted that EcbZIP transcription factor showed significant upregulation under both salt and drought stress conditions, indicating that it plays an important role in tolerance towards these stresses. In conclusion, expression analysis of bZIP gene from finger millet seed cultivar ML-365 showed 5-fold upregulation to salt stress to drought stress and 8-fold upregulation to salt stress. Hence, it can serve as a candidate gene for improving abiotic stress tolerance and can be helpful in enhancing the crop productivity under stress conditions.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Vahideh Biareh ◽  
Farid Shekari ◽  
Saeed Sayfzadeh ◽  
Hamidreza Zakerin ◽  
Esmaeil Hadidi ◽  

Limited water stress is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect the growth, quantity and quality of agronomic crops. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of foliar applied salicylic acid (SA) on physiological responses, antioxidant enzymes and qualitative traits of Cucurbita pepo L. Plants exposed to water-stressed conditions in two years of field studies. Irrigation regimes at three soil matric potential levels (−0.3, −1.2 and −1.8 MPa) and SA at four levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L) were considered as main plot and sub-plots, respectively. The soil matric potential values (MPa) was measured just before irrigation. Results showed that under water stressed conditions alone, the amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ion leakage were higher compared with control treatment. However, spraying of SA under both water stress and non-stress conditions reduced the values of the above parameters. Water stress increased CAT, APX and GR enzymes activity. However foliar application of SA led to the decrease of CAT, APX and GR under all soil matric potential levels. The amount of carbohydrates and fatty acids increased with the intensity of water stress and SA modulated this response. By increasing SA concentration both in optimum and stress conditions, saturated fatty acids content decreased. According to our data, the SA application is an effective approach to improve pumpkin growth under water stress conditions.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Jing Bin ◽  
Meilin Zhu ◽  
Huifen Ding ◽  
Zhouying Zai ◽  
Tingting Shi ◽  

Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is an evergreen woody plant that emits a floral aroma and is widely used in the landscape and fragrance industries. However, its application and cultivation regions are limited by cold stress. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members are widely present in plants and participate in, and regulate, the defense processes of plants under various abiotic stress conditions, but now, the role of this family in the responses of O. fragrans to cold stress is still not clear. Here, 46 OfHSF members were identified in the O. fragrans genome and divided into three subfamilies on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis. The promoter regions of most OfHSFs contained many cis-acting elements involved in multiple hormonal and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data revealed that most of OfHSF genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, and some OfHSF members were induced by cold stress. The qRT-PCR analysis identified four OfHSFs that were induced by both cold and heat stresses, in which OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 had contrary expression trends under cold stress conditions and their expression patterns both showed recovery tendencies after the cold stress. OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 localized to the nuclei and their expression patterns were also induced under multiple abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating that they play critical roles in responses to multiple stresses. Furthermore, after a cold treatment, transient expression revealed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of OfHSF11-transformed tobacco significantly increased, and the expression levels of cold-response regulatory gene NbDREB3, cold response gene NbLEA5 and ROS detoxification gene NbCAT were significantly inhibited, implying that OfHSF11 is a negative regulator of cold responses in O. fragrans. Our study contributes to the further functional characterization of OfHSFs and will be useful in developing improved cold-tolerant cultivars of O. fragrans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Muhammad Mubashar Zafar ◽  
Xue Jia ◽  
Amir Shakeel ◽  
Zareen Sarfraz ◽  
Abdul Manan ◽  

The ever-changing global environment currently includes an increasing ambient temperature that can be a devastating stress for organisms. Plants, being sessile, are adversely affected by heat stress in their physiology, development, growth, and ultimately yield. Since little is known about the response of biochemical traits to high-temperature ambiance, we evaluated eight parental lines (five lines and three testers) and their 15 F1 hybrids under normal and high-temperature stress to assess the impact of these conditions over 2 consecutive years. The research was performed under a triplicate randomized complete block design including a split-plot arrangement. Data were recorded for agronomic, biochemical, and fiber quality traits. Mean values of agronomic traits were significantly reduced under heat stress conditions, while hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase, total soluble protein, superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), carotenoids, and fiber strength displayed higher mean values under heat stress conditions. Under both conditions, high genetic advance and high heritability were observed for seed cotton yield (SCY), CAT, micronaire value, plant height, and chlorophyll-a and b content, indicating that an additive type of gene action controls these traits under both the conditions. For more insights into variation, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed. Significant positive associations were observed among agronomic, biochemical, and fiber quality-related traits. The multivariate analyses involving hierarchical clustering and PCA classified the 23 experimental genotypes into four groups under normal and high-temperature stress conditions. Under both conditions, the F1 hybrid genotype FB-SHAHEEN × JSQ WHITE GOLD followed by Ghuari-1, CCRI-24, Eagle-2 × FB-Falcon, Ghuari-1 × JSQ White Gold, and Eagle-2 exhibited better performance in response to high-temperature stress regarding the agronomic and fiber quality-related traits. The mentioned genotypes could be utilized in future cotton breeding programs to enhance heat tolerance and improve cotton yield and productivity through resistance to environmental stressors.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Konstantinos V. Arsenopoulos ◽  
Eleftherios Triantafillou ◽  
Athanasios I. Gelasakis ◽  
Elias Papadopoulos

Fly infestation remains a universal problem for dairy cattle herds, affecting the animals’ health and welfare status. Pre-weaned dairy calves are significantly challenged by the direct and indirect consequences of severe fly infestation, heat-stress and their interaction, which contribute to a stressful and fatiguing environment. Among several physiological, behavioral, clinical and biochemical traits, serum cortisol (SC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as feed consumption can be used as valid indicators of potential stressful and fatiguing conditions and, therefore, can be efficiently used for stress analysis studies. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the fly-repellency effect of deltamethrin on pre-weaned dairy calves exposed to heat stress conditions, as well as its association with SC, CK concentrations and feed consumption. Two commercial dairy cattle herds of the Holstein breed in Central Macedonia (Greece) were involved in the study during summer months and under heat stress conditions. Deltamethrin administration resulted in (i) a decreased fly population (100% Musca domestica) landing on pre-weaned dairy calves, (ii) a reduced SC (stress indicator) and CK (fatigue indicator) concentration, and (iii) an increased consumption of feedstuff in deltamethrin treated animals compared to the untreated ones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. e202101153
Amandine Batté ◽  
Sophie C van der Horst ◽  
Mireille Tittel-Elmer ◽  
Su Ming Sun ◽  
Sushma Sharma ◽  

Eukaryotic cells have evolved a replication stress response that helps to overcome stalled/collapsed replication forks and ensure proper DNA replication. The replication checkpoint protein Mrc1 plays important roles in these processes, although its functional interactions are not fully understood. Here, we show that MRC1 negatively interacts with CHL1, which encodes the helicase protein Chl1, suggesting distinct roles for these factors during the replication stress response. Indeed, whereas Mrc1 is known to facilitate the restart of stalled replication forks, we uncovered that Chl1 controls replication fork rate under replication stress conditions. Chl1 loss leads to increased RNR1 gene expression and dNTP levels at the onset of S phase likely without activating the DNA damage response. This in turn impairs the formation of RPA-coated ssDNA and subsequent checkpoint activation. Thus, the Chl1 helicase affects RPA-dependent checkpoint activation in response to replication fork arrest by ensuring proper intracellular dNTP levels, thereby controlling replication fork progression under replication stress conditions.

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