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Published By Agricultural Research Communication Center

0976-0547, 0253-150x
Updated Saturday, 18 September 2021

Author(s):  
B. Srinivasulu ◽  
M. Rashid ◽  
P. Pradeep Kumar ◽  
D. Srikanth ◽  
P.K. Singh

Background: Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop grown in the world. Identification of better genotypes among the existing germplasm leads to the success of breeding programme. Elite genotypes should be known for our trait of interest. Methods: A field experiment was carried out at Vegetable Experimental Field, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar during Kharif-2018 in which twenty seven genotypes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were evaluated to estimate the performance of genotypes on various quality traits like lycopene content, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids and juice to pulp ratio. Result: Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits under studied. Highest lycopene content was recorded in the genotypes 2015/TODHYB-1, Roma and VRT-19 Whereas highest TSS content was exhibited by Kashi Aman, Roma, Jawahar-99 and Shalimar Hybrid Tomato-1. Highest titrable acidity recorded in Marglobe followed by 2015/TODHYB-4 and Kashi Hemanth. Juice to pulp ratio was highest in the genotypes namely, 2016/TODVAR-5 and Kashi Vishesh. Hence, the best performed genotypes can be used as such in promotion of tomato production programme as elite germplasm lines/varieties or may be recommended for commercial cultivation after testing them over years and locations.


Author(s):  
Savita . ◽  
Devender Chahal ◽  
Arvind Malik ◽  
Sarita Devi

Background: The present investigation was carried out during the cropping season of year 2019-20 to find out the most suitable growing condition as well as variety of Asiatic lily for the production of bulbs/bulblets under Hisar (Haryana) conditions. Methods: The experiment was laid out in RBD (factorial) with three replications and twelve treatment combinations, comprising of three growing conditions (polyhouse of 200 µ, green shade-net of 50% shade and open field) and four varieties (Courier White, Tresor, Nova Lux and Red Stone). Result: These varieties of Asiatic lily when grown under polyhouse performed better in some parameters resulting in early bulb sprouting, maximum plant height and number of leaves/plant and the minimum days upto harvesting of bulbs, however, in other parameters viz. leaf length and width, weight of bulbs/plant, diameter of bulb and number of bulblets/plant, the shade-net condition was observed to be better than polyhouse. Overall, Tresor performed better, resulting in early bulb sprouting (5.11 days), minimum days (236.56) upto harvesting of bulbs and the maximum plant height (89.01 cm), number of leaves/plant (64.08), leaf length (9.50 cm), diameter of bulb (3.91 cm) and number of bulblets/plant (2.99) and it was followed by Red Stone which produced maximum weight of bulbs/plant (59.03 g) and observed next to Tresor in most of the parameters. Tresor grown under polyhouse took minimum days (231) upto the harvesting of bulbs, produced maximum plant height (115.13 cm) and number of leaves/plant (69.67) and it was closely followed by Red Stone grown under same condition. Further, under the shade-net, Red Stone produced maximum weight of bulbs/plant (65.30 g) followed by Tresor (63.93 g), while the maximum number of bulblets/plant (3.90) were produced by Tresor followed by Red Stone (3.44). Henceforth, Tresor and Red Stone when grown under polyhouse performed better in vegetative parameters and when grown under shade-net performed better in bulb parameters than the other combinations of growing conditions and varieties.


Author(s):  
U.R. Reshma ◽  
S. Simi

Background: The introduction of polyembryonic rootstocks in the area of propagation is of great importance since they produce one zygotic and several nucellar plantlets. Proper identification of sexual embryo from each hybrid seed is necessary in order to preserve only the nucellar seedlings, which would help to maintain the rootstock’s genetic characteristics as well as to overcome the major constraints in the area of fruit breeding especially in hybridization programme by eliminating the nucellar ones to advanced generations. Contrasting reports exists regarding the vigour of zygotic seedlings of polyembryonic mango genotypes. It is necessary to identify/ distinguish the zygotic seedling from the nucellar population at an early stage, for which, microsatellite analysis could be a reliable tool. Methods: The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with 20 treatments replicated thrice. The twenty local mango landraces from Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) were screened for polyembryony and were geo-referenced. Germination studies were conducted. Microsatellite analysis of all the plantlets from two varieties which exhibited the highest polyembryony were done using SSR primers and their banding patterns were compared with those of their respective mother plants. Result: Out of twenty mango varieties screened, seventeen were polyembryonic. Kappa Manga recorded the highest germination, germination index and seedling vigour index-I. Kotookonam Varikka recorded the highest polyembryony and followed by Kochu Kilichundan. Microsatellite analysis revealed that all the seedlings obtained from the respective stones of Kotookonam Varikka and Kochu Kilichundan had identical SSR profile to the mother plant, which indicated nucellar origin of seedlings having similar genetic composition to the mother plant.


Author(s):  
Manoj Kundu ◽  
Suresh Kumar ◽  
Rajesh Lathar ◽  
Sakshi .

Background: Lilium (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) belongs to the family Liliaceae and is a native of Northern Hemisphere (up to South Canada and Siberia). Conventionally Lilium can easily be propagated by sexual and asexual methods of propagation but these prevalent methods are not capable of meeting the increasing demand in domestic and global market. Generally, Lilium is propagated through bulbs but, limited number of bulbs per plant, long dormancy period of bulbs which again results into non-availability of planting material throughout the year. Keeping in view the above facts, the present study was undertaken with the following objective: “To standardize the cost effective protocol for micro propagation of lilium to produce disease free and true to type plants at a faster rate”. Methods: The present investigation was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Centre for Research and Application in Plant Tissue Culture. The experiment was laid out in a C.R.D. (Factorial) with three replications. In vitro raised bulblets were separated out and were transferred on to the root regeneration media. Different levels of NAA were used in MS media for the rooting of in vitro raised bulblets and percent rooting of plantlet is recorded. Result: It was interesting to note that the media LR-3 (MS + NAA 1.0 mg/l) is most efficient for rooting in all type of cultivars. All the three cultivars used responded very poor on media LR-1 (MS basal).


Author(s):  
G. Mrudula ◽  
P. Sandhya Rani ◽  
B. Sreekanth ◽  
K.V. Naga Madhuri ◽  
M. Martin Luther

Background: Zn deficiency was predominant in soils of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, which causes yield reduction in most of the crops especially in finger millet. Zinc has important role in enzyme activation viz., oxidoreductase, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases and ligases. The deficient soil gives us the zinc deficient food which is said to be the major root cause for malnutrition among the children. Hence present study was intended to find out most appropriate method and time of zinc fertilization for higher productivity, grain quality and zinc fortification with two major finger millet varieties viz., vakula and tirumala. Methods: The field experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications and two varieties viz., vakula (V1) and tirumala (V2) with seven zinc application treatments which includes: control (T1); NPK (30-30-20) + FYM @ 10t ha-1 (T2); T2 + soil application (SA) of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 as basal (T3); T2 + SA of chelated zinc sulphate @ 5 kg ha-1 as basal (T4); T2 + FA of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence stage (T5); T2 + foliar application (FA) of 0.2% ZnSO4 at grain filling stage (T6); T2 + FA of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence and grain filling stages (T7). Result: Foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence and grain filling stages registered significantly highest grain and straw yield of 3150 kg ha-1 and 7364 kg ha-1, respectively compared to control and other zinc fertilization treatments. Between the two tested varieties tirumala variety recorded higher grain yield (2298 kg ha-1) compared to vakula variety (2230 kg ha-1).


Author(s):  
N. Mazumder ◽  
S.K. Borah ◽  
K.K. Deka

Background: Tuberose flower has been found to be affected by various fungal and viral diseases which affect growth and cause loss in flower yield. Among them, leaf spot incited by Aternaria polianthi is an important fungal disease in tuberose. The incidence of the disease is common in the both single and double-type tuberose varieties due to prevalence of high rainfall and humid conditions. During survey it was found that the disease incidence was increasing gradually causing economic losses in Assam. Methods: The field trial was carried out during kharif seasons (2015 -18) to test the efficacy of six fungicides against leaf spot of tuberose (Var. Local single petal) caused by Alternaria polyantha. Four sprays with fungicides at an interval of seven days starting from the first appearance of the disease symptom were done. Per cent disease incidence (%) with growth parameters were recorded one week after the last spray. Another field experiment for screening the resistant genotypes was conducted using 11 tuberose genotypes during kharif seasons (2016-17 and 2017-18). Result: Eleven tuberose cultivars (Bidhan Ranjani-1, Bidhan Ranjani-2, Arka Nirantara, GK-TC-4, Prajwal, Phule Rajani, Local Single, Local Double, Vaibhav, Suhashini and Shringer) were screened against leaf spot caused by A.polyanthi under natural field condition. None of the cultivars were found to be immune or resistant, while three cultivars viz., GK-TC-4, Bidhan Rajani-1 and Arka Nirantara showed moderate resistant reaction with recorded per cent disease incidence of 16.11, 18.17 and 18.71, respectively. Spraying with azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and a combo fungicide consisting of iprodione (25%) + carbendazim (25%), at 0.1% recorded lowest per cent disease incidence of 7.91, 9.83 and 11.85% compared to control (33.62 PDI) with per cent disease reduction of 70.59%, 64.61% and 76.31%, respectively.


Author(s):  
Forrester Odongo ◽  
Maurice E. Oyoo ◽  
Paul K. Kimurto ◽  
Victor W. Wasike

Background: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.], an indigenous drought tolerant crop of African origin is one of most important leguminous crop in Sub-Saharan Africa. Small-scale farmers continue cultivating unimproved landraces over the production areas in Kenya. Bambara exist variously as mixtures of seeds, which contain variable types of seed morphology which need to be agronomically and phenotypically differentiated. The study aimed at characterizing Bambara groundnuts collected in Kenya using morphological markers. Methods: One hundred and five germplasm assembled from four major growing agro-ecologies (Busia, Kakamega, Bungom and Vihiga Counties) and Kenya National Gene bank, were evaluated at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) - Alupe (0.4347° N, 34.2422° E) in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the long and short rains of 2015. Nineteen quantitative traits and seven qualitative traits were observed and measured at different growth stages and during harvesting. Result: Many landraces displayed pointed, round and yellowish pod, with grooved and oval seeds. About 49.4% had round leaves, 21.5% had elliptical leaves, while 55.7% were heterogeneous for leaf shape. Quantitative traits were significant (p≤0.05) except for seed weight, seed number per plant and number of stems. The first four principal components accounted for a total of 73.1% of the variations. germplasm were divided into two distinct clusters. Leaf morphology variations could be used as a reliable phenotypic marker in Bambara breeding.


Author(s):  
Ali Noha ◽  
Lisanework Nigatu ◽  
Rejila Manikandan

Background: Prosopis juliflora L. is an evergreen exotic weedy species seriously devastating valuable rangeland resources in arid and semi-arid parts of Ethiopia. Its increasing alarming rate of invasiveness had affecting the livelihood of the pastoral communities in Amibara rangeland of Afar National Regional State. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Prosopis juliflora L. on soil seed bank flora. Methods: The total of 20 soil samples were collected from five sites by measuring sample quadrats of (20 m × 20 m) area were laid out and the soil samples from each quadrant were taken from 5 sub-quadrats/m2, one from the center and four from the corners, at two depths (0-3 cm and 3-10 cm). The soil samples from the identical layers were mixed in plastic bags to form composite sample. Finally, the composite samples were transported to the Haramaya University to conduct seed germination test in the greenhouse. The soil samples were spread thinly (2 cm thickness) over sterilized soil in shallow trays (20 cm × 25 cm) placed on a bench and allowed for seed germination. Result: The total of 38 herbaceous plant species /m2 belongs to 16 families were emerged in the upper and lower layer (0-3 cm and 3-10 cm) of the soil seed bank samples. The highest values of species diversity were (3.17) in Awash-arba, (3.15) in Alaydagi, (3.04) in Kurkura within m2 area at the depth of 0-3 cm. While the least diversity values of 2.75 in Melka-Werer and 2.77 was recorded in Sarkamo. Jaccard’s coefficient similarity index was exhibited high species similarity of 55.6% in the upper soil seed bank layers (0-3 cm) in Melka-were and Sarkamo. Whereas, species similarities of 45.2% were obtained in the lower layer (3-10 cm) soil seed banks in Awash-arba and upper layer soil seed bank in Alaydagi respectively. While species similarity was decreases as 31.8% in the lower layer soil seed banks in Sarkamo and Kurkura. Increasing species richness and the diversity was also noticed in under open canopy upper layer soil seed bank samples, while decreasing richness and diversity observed in under closed canopy. This indicates that the Prosopis juliflora L. tree has high growth retarding potential on its under canopy soil seed bank flora and in the lower layer soil seed bank samples also.


Author(s):  
Y. Bhargavi ◽  
P. Sudhakar ◽  
V. Raja Rajeswari ◽  
T. Giridhara Krishna

Background: Heavy use of chemicals in agriculture has weakened the ecological base and caused the degradation of soil, water resources and quality of the food. The increasing cost and unavailability of fertilizers, growing ecological concern has forced us to try new methods of application of nutrients. Natural farming is the new method introduced as a holistic alternative to the present chemical input based agriculture. There has been increasing interest in the use of panchagavya, beejamrutha, jeevamrutha and other liquid organic formulations during the recent years. Therefore, there is a need to compare the efficiency of natural liquid organics and the regular chemical fertilizers. Hence, the present investigation is taken up with the aim to study the effect of different foliar spray of organics on growth of blackgram. Methods: A field experiment was conducted at the dryland farm, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati during Kharif, 2017 to study the effect of foliar sprays of different natural liquid organics on morphological and growth attributes of blackgram. Result: The results indicated that RDF (recommended dose of fertilizers) recorded significantly maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter, seed yield and other yield attributes over the foliar spray of liquid organics. Results further revealed that significantly lower plant height, dry matter were recorded in the treatment receiving seed treatment with beejamrutha. No significant difference in terms of days to 50% flowering was observed among the treatments. Significantly higher emergence index was recorded in the treatments receiving seed treatment with beejamrutha and water. Integrated use of organics has recorded significantly more number of root nodules compared to other treatments. Jeevamrutha foliar spray recorded to be superior over panchagavya foliar spray which was attributed to the presence of micronutrients in jeevamrutha.


Author(s):  
Sujoy Hazari ◽  
Mamoni Kalita

Background: Chillies are one of the most widely used spices and a commercial crop. It is the most widely used universal spice and is named as the wonder spice. Tripura is one of the largest producers of a commercial crop of chilli in the entire north eastern state. Commercial cultivation of chilli is very profitable and can expect high revenue because of high market value or market demand in local markets. Under this backdrop, the paper attempts to study the economics of chilli production in Tripura, India. Methods: This study was conducted on a sample of 150 chilli growers in Dhalai district, West Tripura and the Sipahijala district of Tripura during 2019-20 as it is the highest chilli growing area. A personal interview method was used to collect the data and suitable statistical tools were used for analyzing the data. The cost of cultivation for chilli was calculated by using the CACP (Commission on Agriculture Cost and Prices) approach. Result: The study revealed that the majority of the respondents were under the age of 54 years, belonged to the schedule tribe category i.e., 48.66 per cent (24.33) followed by the general category i.e., 34.66 (17.33) and the schedule caste category i.e., 16.66 per cent (8.33). All the respondents were from farming families, mainly belonging to marginal and small land holdings. It has been observed that the maximum cost was incurred on total family labour, i.e., Rs. 41230.11, Rs. 56769.23 and Rs. 51972.17 respectively in West Tripura, Unakoti and South Tripura, whereas in the case of total hired labour cost, no was involved by the growers of South Tripura district. The total production of chilli was 2894.45 kg/ha and the overall return over cost C was determined at Rs. 104572.94 per ha. In the different districts, the return per rupee over cost C ranged from 1.99 to 2.44.


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