the north sea
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Marine Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 137 ◽  
pp. 104874
Author(s):  
Matthew J. Spaniol ◽  
Nicholas J. Rowland

2022 ◽  
Vol 579 ◽  
pp. 117340
Author(s):  
Simin Jin ◽  
David B. Kemp ◽  
David W. Jolley ◽  
Manuel Vieira ◽  
James C. Zachos ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. SP494-2021-182
Author(s):  
Stuart G. Archer ◽  
Henk Kombrink ◽  
Stefano Patruno ◽  
Domenico Chiarella ◽  
Christopher Jackson ◽  
...  

AbstractThe North Sea has entered a phase of infrastructure-led exploration in an attempt to extend the economic lives of the main fields and arrest the overall production decline to a certain extent, while the transition to a future low-carbon use of the basin is also in progress. As the papers in this volume demonstrate, in order to find, appraise and develop the mostly smaller near-field opportunities as well as making sure to grasp the opportunities of the near-future energy transition, a regional understanding of the North Sea is still critical. Even more so, a cross-border approach is essential because 1) some of the plays currently being targeted have a clear cross-border element, 2) it allows the comparison of stratigraphic names throughout the entire basin and 3) it enables explorers to learn lessons from one part of the rift to be applied somewhere else.This volume offers an up-to-date, ‘geology-without-borders’ view of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, tectonics and oil-and-gas exploration trends of the entire North Sea basin. The challenges associated with data continuity and nomenclature differences across median lines are discussed and mitigated. Examples of under-exploited cross-border plays and discoveries are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shaun Thomson ◽  
Baglan Kiyabayev ◽  
Barry Ritchie ◽  
Jakob Monberg ◽  
Maurits De Heer ◽  
...  

Abstract The Valdemar field, located in the Danish sector of the North Sea, targets a Lower Cretaceous, "dirty chalk" reservoir characterized by low permeabilities of <0.5mD, high porosities of >20% and contains up to 25% insoluble fines. To produce economically the reservoir must be stimulated. Typically, this is by means of hydraulic fracturing. A traditional propped fracture consists of 500,000 to 1,000,000 lbs of 20/40 sand, placed using a crosslinked seawater-based borate fluid. The existing wells in the field are completed using the PSI (perforate, isolate, stimulate)1 system. This system was developed in the late 1980s as a way of improving completion times allowing each interval to be perforated, stimulated and isolated in a single trip and has been used extensively in the Danish North Sea in a variety of fields. The system consists of multiset packers with sliding sleeves and typically takes 2-3 days between the start of one fracture to the next. Future developments in this area now require a new, novel and more efficient approach owing to new target reservoir being of a thinner and poorer quality. In order for these new developments to be economical an approach was required to allow for longer wells to be drilled and completed allowing better reservoir connectivity whilst at the same time reducing the completion time, and therefore rig time and overall cost. A project team was put together to develop a system that could be used in an offshore environment that would satisfy the above criteria, allowing wells to be drilled out to 21,000ft and beyond in excess of coiled tubing reach. The technology developed consists of cemented frac sleeves, operated with jointed pipe, allowing multiple zones to be stimulated in one trip, as well as utilizing a modified BHA that allows for the treatments to take place through the tubing, bringing numerous benefits. The following paper details the reasons for developing the new technology, the development process itself, the challenges that had to be overcome and a case history on the execution of the first job of its kind in the North Sea, in which over 7MM lbs of sand was pumped successfully, as well as the post treatment operations which included a proof of concept in utilizing a tractor to manipulate the sleeves. Finally, the production performance will be discussed supported by the use of tracer subs at each of the zones.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Asif Hoq ◽  
Yann Caline ◽  
Erik Jakobsen ◽  
Neil Wood ◽  
Rob Stolpman ◽  
...  

Abstract The Valhall field, operated by AkerBP, has been a major hub in the North Sea, on stream for thirty-eight years and recently passed one billion barrels of oil produced. The field requires stimulation for economical production. Mechanically strong formations are acid stimulated, while weaker formations require large tip-screenout design proppant fractures. Fracture deployment methods on Valhall have remained relatively unchanged since the nineties and are currently referred to as "conventional". Those consist in a sequence of placing a proppant frac, cleaning out the well with coiled tubing, opening a sleeve or shooting perforations, then coil pulling out of hole pumping the proppant frac. For the past few years, AkerBP and their service partners have worked on qualifying an adapted version of the annular coiled tubing fracturing practice for the offshore infrastructure - a first for the industry, which has been a strategic priority for the operator as it significantly reduces execution time and accelerates production. As with all technology trials, the implementation of this practice on Valhall had to begin on a learning curve through various forms of challenges. Whilst investigating the cause and frequency of premature screenouts during the initial implementation of annular fracturing, the team decided to challenge the conventional standards for fluid testing and quality control. Carefully engineered adjustments were made with regards to high shear testing conditions, temperature modelling, and mixing sequences, these did not only identify the root cause for the unexpected screenouts, but also helped create the current blueprint for engineering a robust fluid. Since the deployment of the redefined recipe, adjusted testing procedures and changes made to the stimulation vessel, there have not been any cases of fluid induced screenouts during the executions. The fewer types of additives now required for the recipe have lowered the cost of treatments and the lower gel loading leads to reduced damage in the fractures, thereby contributing to enhanced production over the lifetime of the wells. This paper describes the investigation, findings and the resulting changes made to the fluid formulation and quality control procedures to accommodate for high shear and dynamic wellbore temperature conditions. It discusses the rationale behind the "reality" testing model and, proves that significant value is created from investing time in thoroughly understanding fluid behaviour in the lab, prior to pumping it on large-scale capital-intensive operations. The study demonstrated that there is always value in innovating or challenging pre-conceived practices, and the learnings from this investigation significantly improved the track record for annular fracturing on Valhall, redefined fluid engineering for the North Sea and will inform future annular fracturing deployments on other offshore assets around the world.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pieterjan Verhelst ◽  
Jan Reubens ◽  
Johan Coeck ◽  
Tom Moens ◽  
Janek Simon ◽  
...  

AbstractRecent developments in tracking technology resulted in the mapping of various marine spawning migration routes of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). However, migration routes in the North Sea have rarely been studied, despite many large European rivers and hence potential eel growing habitat discharge into the North Sea. In this study, we present the most comprehensive map to date with migration routes by silver European eels in the North Sea and document for the first time successful eel migration through the English Channel. Migration tracks were reconstructed for 42 eels tagged in Belgium and 12 in Germany. Additionally, some eels moved up north to exit the North Sea over the British Isles, confirming the existence of two different routes, even for eels exiting from a single river catchment. Furthermore, we observed a wide range in migration speeds (6.8–45.2 km day−1). We hypothesize that these are likely attributed to water currents, with eels migrating through the English Channel being significantly faster than eels migrating northward.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 414
Author(s):  
Franck Schoefs ◽  
Thanh-Binh Tran

Marine growth is a known problem for oceanic infrastructure and has been shown to negatively impact the reliability of bottom-fixed or floating offshore structures submitted to fatigue or extreme loading. Among other effects, it has been shown to change drag forces by increasing member diameters and modifying the roughness. Bio-colonization being highly random, the objective of this paper is to show how one-site inspection data increases reliability by decreasing uncertainties. This can be introduced in a reliability-based inspection framework for optimizing inspection and maintenance (here, cleaning). The modeling and computation are illustrated through the reliability analysis of a monopile in the European Atlantic area subjected to marine growth and according to the plastic collapse limit state. Based on surveys of structures in the North Sea, long-term stochastic modeling (space and time) of the marine growth thickness is first suggested. A Dynamic Bayesian Network is then developed for reliability updating from the inspection data. Finally, several realistic (10–20 measurements) inspection strategies are compared in terms of reliability improvement and the accuracy of reliability assessment.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Chen ◽  
Joanna Staneva ◽  
Sebastian Grayek ◽  
Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth ◽  
Jens Greinert

Abstract. Extremes in temperatures not only directly affect the marine environment and ecosystems but also have indirect impacts on hydrodynamics and marine life. The role of heat wave events responsible for the occurrence and persistence of thermal stratification was analysed using a fully coupled hydrodynamic and wave model within the framework of the Geesthacht Coupled cOAstal model SysTem (GCOAST) for the North Sea. The model results were assessed against satellite reprocessed data and in situ observations from field campaigns and fixed MARNET stations. To quantify the degree of stratification, a potential energy anomaly over the water column was calculated. A linear correlation existed between the air temperatures and the potential energy anomaly in the North Sea excluding the Norwegian Trench and the area south of 54° N latitude. Contrary to the northern part of the North Sea, where the water column is stratified in the warming season each year, the southern North Sea is seasonally stratified in years when a heatwave occurs. The influences of heatwaves on the occurrence of summer stratifications in the southern North Sea are mainly in the form of two aspects, i.e., a rapid rise in sea surface temperature at the early stage of the heatwave period and a relatively higher water temperature during summer than the multiyear mean. Another factor that enhances the thermal stratification in summer is the memory of the water column to cold spells earlier in the year. Differences between the seasonally stratified northern North Sea and the heatwave-induced stratified southern North Sea were attributed to changes in water depth.


2022 ◽  
pp. 65-73
Author(s):  
Hans Petter Sejrup ◽  
Berit Oline Hjelstuen

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