For a few years now, GNSS multi-frequency quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA) are available to be used for precise GNSS applications. We performed test measurements with two types of multi-frequency QHA and compared them with a geodetic patch antenna. Although code and carrier phase noise and high-frequent multipath was determined to be larger as compared to the geodetic antenna, the fast-static horizontal coordinate accuracies are on the same level and demonstrate cm-accuracy capability. One of the QHA types exhibited an increased susceptibility to near-field multipath effects which resulted in a degraded accuracy of the vertical coordinate component.
AbstractWireless charging of devices has significant outcomes for mobile devices, IoT devices and wearables. Existing technologies consider using Point to Point type wireless transfer from a transmitter Tx (node that is sending Power) to a receiver Rx (node that receives power), which limits the area of coverage for devices. As a result, existing systems are forced to use near field coupling to charge such devices. Fundamental limitation is also that such methods limit charging to a small hotspot. In partnership with Wireless Electrical Grid LANs (WiGL pronounced “wiggle”), we demonstrate patented Ad-hoc mesh networking method(s) to provide wireless recharging at over 5 feet from the source, while allowing significant lateral movement of the receiver on the WiGL (Wireless Grid LAN or local area network). The transmitter network method leverages a series of panels, operating as a mesh of transmitters that can be miniaturized or hidden in walls or furniture for an ergonomic use. This disruptive technology holds the unique advantage of being able to provide recharging of moving targets similar to the cellular concept used in WiLAN, as opposed to prior wireless charging attempts, which only allow a hotspot-based charging. Specifically, we demonstrate the charging of a popular smartphone using the proposed system in the radiating near field zone of the transmitter antennas, while the user is free to move in the space on the meshed network. The averaged received power of 10 dBm is demonstrated using 1W RF-transmitter(s), operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The proposed hardware consists of antennas arrays, rectennas, power management and USB 2.0 interfaces for maintaining a voltage between 4.2 and 5.3 V and smooth charging. We also show extending the wireless grid coverage with the use of multiple transmitting antennas, and mechanical beam-steering even further an increased coverage using the proposed system.
Magnetic near-field probes (NFP) represent a suitable tool to measure the magnetic field level from a small electromagnetic interference (EMI) source. This kind of antenna is useful as a magnetic field probe for pre-compliance EMC measurements or debugging tasks since the user can scan a printed circuit board (PCB) looking for locations with strong magnetic fields. When a strong H-field point is found, the designer should check the PCB layout and components placement in that area to detect if this could result in an EMI source. This contribution focuses on analyzing the performance of an easy to build and low-cost H-field NFP designed and manufactured using a standard PCB stack-up. Thereby, the frequency range and sensitivity of the NFP-PCB are analyzed through a Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation model that makes it possible to evaluate its sensibility and effective frequency range. The numerical results obtained with the FEM models are validated against measurements to verify the design and performance of our NFP. The FEM model reproduces the experimental procedure, which is used to evaluate the performance of the NFP in terms of sensitivity by means of the simulated near-field distribution. The NFP-PCB has almost a flat response from 180 MHz to 6 GHz, with an almost perfect concordance between numerical and experimental S21 results. The numerical results show an average transmission loss of −27.9 dB by considering the flat response bandwidth, whereas the experimental one is −29.7 dB. Finally, the designed NFP is compared to two high-quality commercial probes in order to analyze its performance.
Magnesium–silver alloys are of high interest for the use as temporary bone implants due to their antibacterial properties in addition to biocompatibility and biodegradability. Thin wires in particular can be used for scaffolding, but the determination of their degradation rate and homogeneity using traditional methods is difficult. Therefore, we have employed 3D imaging using X-ray near-field holotomography with sub-micrometer resolution to study the degradation of thin (250 μm diameter) Mg-2Ag and Mg-6Ag wires. The wires were studied in two states, recrystallized and solution annealed to assess the influence of Ag content and precipitates on the degradation. Imaging was employed after degradation in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and 10% fetal bovine serum after 1 to 7 days. At 3 days of immersion the degradation rates of both alloys in both states were similar, but at 7 days higher silver content and solution annealing lead to decreased degradation rates. The opposite was observed for the pitting factor. Overall, the standard deviation of the determined parameters was high, owing to the relatively small field of view during imaging and high degradation inhomogeneity of the samples. Nevertheless, Mg-6Ag in the solution annealed state emerges as a potential material for thin wire manufacturing for implants.
The active control to the local resonant mode of metasurface is a promising route for improving the operation bandwidth limitation of metasurface. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrated the active tunabilities in a frequency-agile Fano-resonant metasurface. The metasurface with a pair of asymmetric split ring resonators is integrated with double varactor diodes for active control of the sharp Fano resonance. It is found that the sharp Fano-type spectrum appears due to the near-field interferences between the collective electric and magnetic dipole modes. The physical insight is revealed through local field analysis, multipole decomposition and temporal coupled-mode theory. It is also found that the metasurface can be employed as a broadband and unity modulator. Hopefully, our results could inspire sophisticated electrically controlled photonic devices with novel functions.