data assimilation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 371
Sina Voshtani ◽  
Richard Ménard ◽  
Thomas W. Walker ◽  
Amir Hakami

We present a parametric Kalman filter data assimilation system using GOSAT methane observations within the hemispheric CMAQ model. The assimilation system produces forecasts and analyses of concentrations and explicitly computes its evolving error variance while remaining computationally competitive with other data assimilation schemes such as 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The error variance in this system is advected using the native advection scheme of the CMAQ model and updated at each analysis while the error correlations are kept fixed. We discuss extensions to the CMAQ model to include methane transport and emissions (both anthropogenic and natural) and perform a bias correction for the GOSAT observations. The results using synthetic observations show that the analysis error and analysis increments follow the advective flow while conserving the information content (i.e., total variance). We also demonstrate that the vertical error correlation contributes to the inference of variables down to the surface. In a companion paper, we use this assimilation system to obtain optimal assimilation of GOSAT observations.

2022 ◽  
Haibo Wang ◽  
Ting Yang ◽  
Zifa Wang ◽  
Jianjun Li ◽  
Wenxuan Chai ◽  

Abstract. Aerosol vertical stratification information is important for global climate and planetary boundary layer (PBL) stability, and no single method can obtain spatiotemporally continuous vertical profiles. This paper develops an online data assimilation (DA) framework for the Eulerian atmospheric chemistry-transport model (CTM) Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System (NAQPMS) with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF) as the NAQPMS-PDAF for the first time. Online coupling occurs via a memory-based approach with two-level parallelization, and the arrangement of state vectors during the filter is specifically designed. Scaling tests provide evidence that the NAQPMS-PDAF can make efficient use of parallel computational resources for up to 2.5 k processors with weak scaling efficiency up to 0.7. One-month-long aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by the ground-based lidar and the concurrent hourly surface PM2.5 are solely and simultaneously assimilated to investigate the performance and application of the DA system. The hourly analysis and subsequent one-hour simulation are validated through lidar and surface PM2.5 measurements assimilated and not assimilated. The results show that lidar DA can significantly improve the underestimation of aerosol loading, especially at a height of approximately 400 m in the free-running (FR) experiment, with the BIAS changing from −0.20 (−0.14) 1/km to −0.02 (−0.01) 1/km and correlation coefficients increasing from 0.33 (0.28) to 0.91 (0.53) averaged over sites with measurements assimilated (not assimilated). Compared with the FR experiment, simultaneously assimilating PM2.5 and lidar can have a more consistent pattern of aerosol vertical profiles with a combination of surface PM2.5 and lidar, independent extinction coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Lidar DA has a larger temporal impact than that in PM2.5 DA but has deficiencies in subsequent quantification on the surface PM2.5. The proposed NAQPMS-PDAF has great potential for further research on the impact of aerosol vertical distribution.

2022 ◽  
Romit Maulik ◽  
Vishwas Rao ◽  
Jiali Wang ◽  
Gianmarco Mengaldo ◽  
Emil Constantinescu ◽  

Abstract. Data assimilation (DA) in the geophysical sciences remains the cornerstone of robust forecasts from numerical models. Indeed, DA plays a crucial role in the quality of numerical weather prediction, and is a crucial building block that has allowed dramatic improvements in weather forecasting over the past few decades. DA is commonly framed in a variational setting, where one solves an optimization problem within a Bayesian formulation using raw model forecasts as a prior, and observations as likelihood. This leads to a DA objective function that needs to be minimized, where the decision variables are the initial conditions specified to the model. In traditional DA, the forward model is numerically and computationally expensive. Here we replace the forward model with a low-dimensional, data-driven, and differentiable emulator. Consequently, gradients of our DA objective function with respect to the decision variables are obtained rapidly via automatic differentiation. We demonstrate our approach by performing an emulator-assisted DA forecast of geopotential height. Our results indicate that emulator-assisted DA is faster than traditional equation-based DA forecasts by four orders of magnitude, allowing computations to be performed on a workstation rather than a dedicated high-performance computer. In addition, we describe accuracy benefits of emulator-assisted DA when compared to simply using the emulator for forecasting (i.e., without DA). Our overall formulation is denoted AIAEDA (Artificial Intelligence Emulator Assisted Data Assimilation).

2022 ◽  
Kevin Raeder ◽  
Jeffrey Anderson ◽  
Moha El Gharamti ◽  
Benjamin Johnson ◽  
Benjamin Gaubert ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 015101
Sen Li ◽  
Chuangxin He ◽  
Yingzheng Liu

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