Transport Model
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Yongyang Liu ◽  
Yaxin Lu ◽  
Zhiyong Tang ◽  
Yuheng Cao ◽  
Dehua Huang ◽  

Axonal transport plays a significant role in the establishment of neuronal polarity, axon growth, and synapse formation during neuronal development. The axon of a naturally growing neuron is a highly complex and multifurcated structure with a large number of bends and branches. Nowadays, the study of dynamic axonal transport in morphologically complex neurons is greatly limited by the technological barrier. Here, a sparse gene transfection strategy was developed to locate fluorescent mCherry in the lysosome of primary neurons, thus enabling us to track the lysosome-based axonal transport with a single-particle resolution. Thereby, several axonal transport models were observed, including forward or backward transport model, stop-and-go model, repeated back-and-forth transport model, and cross-branch transport model. Then, the accurate single-particle velocity quantification by TrackMate revealed a highly heterogeneous and discontinuous transportation process of lysosome-based axonal transport in freely orientated axons. And, multiple physical factors, such as the axonal structure and the size of particles, were disclosed to affect the velocity of particle transporting in freely orientated axons. The combined single-particle fluorescence tracking and TrackMate assay can be served as a facile tool for evaluating axonal transport in neuronal development and axonal transport-related diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sribhashyam K. Kireeti ◽  
Ravikiran Sastry Gadepalli ◽  
Santhosh K. Gugulothu

Abstract In this study, the flow dynamics with finite volume approach on commercial software Ansys-Fluent 20.0 to solve the compressible two-dimensional fluid flow with Reynolds Average Navier Stokes equation (RANS) equation by considering the density-based solver with Shaer stress transport model (SST) k- ω turbulent model. The species transport model with volumetric reaction and finite rate/eddy dissipation turbulence chemistry interaction is adopted to study the combustion phenomena. Additionally, the effect of spacing between the struts on the flow characters and performance of the combustor is studied by increasing the spacing of struts from 1 mm to 4 mm for each increment of 1 mm. It is found that the multi strut improves the mixing and combustion efficiency compared with that of the single strut owing to the formation of a significant separation layer, resulting in multiple shocks, vortices, and a larger recirculation zone. However, when the spacing of struts is increased further, the performance of the combustor is found to be deteriorating owing to the formation of larger separation layers. The recirculation zone is significant when the strut spacing is minimal and shrinks and restricts itself within the cavity when spacing is increased. So, for better performance of combustor, multi strut with minimum spacing is preferable.

2022 ◽  
Mathieu Lachatre ◽  
Sylvain Mailler ◽  
Laurent Menut ◽  
Arineh Cholakian ◽  
Pasquale Sellitto ◽  

Abstract. Volcanic activity is an important source of atmospheric sulphur dioxide (SO2), which, after conversion into sulphuric acid, induces impacts on, among others, rain acidity, human health, meteorology and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This work focuses on the conversion of SO2 into sulphates (, S(+VI)) in the mid-tropospheric volcanic plume emitted by the explosive eruption of Mount Etna (Italy) on Apr. 12, 2012, using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. Since volcanic plume location and composition depend on several often poorly constrained parameters, using a chemistry-transport model allows us to study the sensitivity of SO2 oxidation to multiple aspects such as volcanic water emissions, transition metal emissions, plume diffusion and plume altitude. Our results show that in the mid-troposphere, two pathways contribute to sulphate production, the oxidation of SO2 by OH in the gaseous phase (70 %), and the aqueous oxidation by O2 catalyzed by Mn2+ and Fe3+ ions (25 %). The oxidation in aqueous phase is the faster process, but in the mid-troposphere, liquid water is scarce, therefore the relative share of gaseous oxidation can be important. After one day in the mid-troposphere, about 0.5 % of the volcanic SO2 was converted to sulphates through the gaseous process. Because of the nonlinear dependency of the kinetics in the aqueous phase to the amount of volcanic water emitted and on the availability of transition metals in the aqueous phase, several experiments have been designed to determine the prominence of different parameters. Our simulations show that during the short time that liquid water remains in the plume, around 0.4 % of sulphates manage to quickly enter the liquid phase. Sensitivity tests regarding the advection scheme have shown that this scheme must be chosen wisely, as dispersion will impact both oxidation pathways explained above.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-73
Andrew Zammit-Mangion ◽  
Michael Bertolacci ◽  
Jenny Fisher ◽  
Ann Stavert ◽  
Matthew Rigby ◽  

Abstract. WOMBAT (the WOllongong Methodology for Bayesian Assimilation of Trace-gases) is a fully Bayesian hierarchical statistical framework for flux inversion of trace gases from flask, in situ, and remotely sensed data. WOMBAT extends the conventional Bayesian synthesis framework through the consideration of a correlated error term, the capacity for online bias correction, and the provision of uncertainty quantification on all unknowns that appear in the Bayesian statistical model. We show, in an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), that these extensions are crucial when the data are indeed biased and have errors that are spatio-temporally correlated. Using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model, we show that WOMBAT is able to obtain posterior means and variances on non-fossil-fuel CO2 fluxes from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) data that are comparable to those from the Model Intercomparison Project (MIP) reported in Crowell et al. (2019). We also find that WOMBAT's predictions of out-of-sample retrievals obtained from the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON) are, for the most part, more accurate than those made by the MIP participants.

2022 ◽  
Andrea Mazzeo ◽  
Michael Burrow ◽  
Andrew Quinn ◽  
Eloise A. Marais ◽  
Ajit Singh ◽  

Abstract. Urban conurbations of East Africa are affected by harmful levels of air pollution. The paucity of local air quality networks and the absence of capacity to forecast air quality make it difficult to quantify the real level of air pollution in this area. The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE has been coupled with the meteorological model WRF and used to simulate hourly concentrations of Particulate Matter PM2.5 for three East African urban conurbations: Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, Nairobi in Kenya and Kampala in Uganda. Two existing emission inventories were combined to test the performance of CHIMERE as an air quality tool for a target monthly period of 2017 and the results compared against observed data from urban and rural sites. The results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variability of aerosol concentrations close to observations both in urban and rural environments. CHIMERE’s performance as a tool for managing air quality was also assessed. The analysis demonstrated that despite the absence of high-resolution data and up-to-date biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, the model was able to reproduce 66–99 % of the daily PM2.5 exceedances above the WHO 24-hour mean PM2.5 guideline (25 µg m−3) in the three cities. An analysis of the 24-hour mean levels of PM2.5 was also carried out for 17 constituencies in the vicinity of Nairobi. This showed that 47 % of the constituencies in the area exhibited a low air quality index for PM2.5 in the unhealthy category for human health exposing between 10000 to 30000 people/km2 to harmful levels of air contamination.

Weisheng Lin ◽  
Xiaogang Wang ◽  
Xueqiao Xu ◽  
Defeng Kong ◽  
Yumin Wang ◽  

Abstract Tritium self-sufficiency in future DT fusion reactor is a crucial challenge. As an engineering test reactor, CFETR requires a burning fraction of 3% for the goal to test the accessibility to the future fusion plant. To self-consistently simulate burning plasmas with profile changes in pellet injection scenarios and to estimate the corresponding burning fraction, a one-dimensional (1-D) multi-species radial transport model is developed in BOUT++ frame. Several pellet-fueling scenarios are then tested in the model. Results show that the increased fueling depth improves the burning fraction by particle confinement improvement and fusion power increase. Nevertheless, by increasing the depth, the pellet cooling-down may significantly lower the temperature in the core region. Taking the density perturbation into consideration, the reasonable parameters of the fueling scenario in these simulations are estimated as the pellet radius r_p=3 mm, the injection rate = 4 Hz , the pellet injection velocity =1000–2000 m/s without drift or 450 m/s with high filed side (HFS) drift.

2022 ◽  
Duc H. Nguyen ◽  
Mikhail Goman ◽  
Mark H. Lowenberg ◽  
Simon A. Neild

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