Correlation Coefficients
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 698
Ruren Li ◽  
Shoujia Li ◽  
Zhiwei Xie

Integration development of urban agglomeration is important for regional economic research and management. In this paper, a method was proposed to study the integration development of urban agglomeration by trajectory gravity model. It can analyze the gravitational strength of the core city to other cities and characterize the spatial trajectory of its gravitational direction, expansion, etc. quantitatively. The main idea is to do the fitting analysis between the urban axes and the gravitational lines. The correlation coefficients retrieved from the fitting analysis can reflect the correlation of two indices. For the different cities in the same year, a higher value means a stronger relationship. There is a clear gravitational force between the cities when the value above 0.75. For the most cities in different years, the gravitational force between the core city with itself is increasing by years. At the same time, the direction of growth of the urban axes tends to increase in the direction of the gravitational force between cities. There is a clear tendency for the trajectories of the cities to move closer together. The proposed model was applied to the integration development of China Liaoning central urban agglomeration from 2008 to 2016. The results show that cities are constantly attracted to each other through urban gravity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elizabeth Manders ◽  
Sharon Goodill ◽  
Sabine C. Koch ◽  
Ellen Giarelli ◽  
Marcia Polansky ◽  

Background: Individuals on the autism spectrum are often described as having atypical social interactions. Ideally, interactional synchrony helps any interaction flow smoothly with each individual responding verbally, non-verbally, and/or emotionally within a short timeframe. Differences in interactional synchrony may impact how individuals on the autism spectrum experience social encounters.Method: This mixed methods pilot study examined interactional synchrony in five cases of adolescents and adults on the autism spectrum through secondary analysis of video of the participants in movement-based mirroring tasks during dance/movement therapy. Raters described the movement and interactions of the participants while they were leading and following mirroring and engaged in open-ended free dances with a partner. Videos were also scored on measures of affective engagement, flow of the interaction, and synchrony.Results: One of the most striking findings of this study was the difference between engagement in the instructions of the task and engagement with the partner: participants often followed the instructions for the mirroring tasks with little further social engagement with their partner. When participants did engage in moments of social initiation, attunement to the partner, and interactive behaviors, these did not develop into longer interactions. A paired t-test of the correlation coefficients for each participant showed that scores on synchrony and affective engagement were more strongly positively correlated in the less structured open-ended dance and in video clips of interactive behaviors, than in the videos of simply leading or following mirroring. Synchrony was also significantly more strongly positively correlated with the observed flow of the interaction than with observed affective engagement. With the small sample size, however, most of the correlation coefficients were not significant and should be tested on a larger sample.Discussion: Interpersonal synchrony may not be sufficient to effectively support social engagement when individuals on the autism spectrum simply follow instructions to synchronize their movements. Synchrony-based interventions may therefore need to include more complex open-ended social scenarios as interactional synchrony may then be more correlated with perceived interaction quality. Therapists may also need to partner with participants to model using non-verbal social behaviors to develop interactions within mirroring tasks.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (20) ◽  
pp. 6846
Dong-Wook Kim ◽  
Hong-Gi Ahn ◽  
Jeeyoung Kim ◽  
Choon-Sik Yoon ◽  
Ji-Hong Kim ◽  

In this study, we aimed to develop a new automated method for kidney volume measurement in children using ultrasonography (US) with image pre-processing and hybrid learning and to formulate an equation to calculate the expected kidney volume. The volumes of 282 kidneys (141 subjects, <19 years old) with normal function and structure were measured using US. The volumes of 58 kidneys in 29 subjects who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) were determined by image segmentation and compared to those calculated by the conventional ellipsoidal method and CT using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). An expected kidney volume equation was developed using multivariate regression analysis. Manual image segmentation was automated using hybrid learning to calculate the kidney volume. The ICCs for volume determined by image segmentation and ellipsoidal method were significantly different, while that for volume calculated by hybrid learning was significantly higher than that for ellipsoidal method. Volume determined by image segmentation was significantly correlated with weight, body surface area, and height. Expected kidney volume was calculated as (2.22 × weight (kg) + 0.252 × height (cm) + 5.138). This method will be valuable in establishing an age-matched normal kidney growth chart through the accumulation and analysis of large-scale data.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0254330
Jane Whelan ◽  
Helen Marshall ◽  
Thomas R. Sullivan

Cluster randomized trials (cRCT) to assess vaccine effectiveness incorporate indirect effects of vaccination, helping to inform vaccination policy. To calculate the sample size for a cRCT, an estimate of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) is required. For infectious diseases, shared characteristics and social mixing behaviours may increase susceptibility and exposure, promote transmission and be a source of clustering. We present ICCs from a school-based cRCT assessing the effectiveness of a meningococcal B vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline) on reducing oropharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) in 34,489 adolescents from 237 schools in South Australia in 2017/2018. We also explore the contribution of shared behaviours and characteristics to these ICCs. The ICC for carriage of disease-causing Nm genogroups (primary outcome) pre-vaccination was 0.004 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.007) and for all Nm was 0.007 (95%CI: 0.004, 0.011). Adjustment for social behaviours and personal characteristics reduced the ICC for carriage of disease-causing and all Nm genogroups by 25% (to 0.003) and 43% (to 0.004), respectively. ICCs are also reported for risk factors here, which may be outcomes in future research. Higher ICCs were observed for susceptibility and/or exposure variables related to Nm carriage (having a cold, spending ≥1 night out socializing or kissing ≥1 person in the previous week). In metropolitan areas, nights out socializing was a highly correlated behaviour. By contrast, smoking was a highly correlated behaviour in rural areas. A practical example to inform future cRCT sample size estimates is provided.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Erik Alexander Meurrens

Since the 1980s, the labor union density has gradually declined across member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), indicating a lowering percentage of employees represented by unions. In the United States, the declining union density has been shown to have an impact on wealth inequality, which has increased correspondingly. With a lack of representation by labor unions, workers are less secure in their jobs, which could cause a reduction in job satisfaction and an increase in stress. Therefore, a declining union density can also influence the subjective well-being of an impacted group. The aim of this research was to identify and investigate the potential relationships between union density and wage inequality and union density and subjective well-being across thirteen countries through regression analysis. The thirteen countries selected were all developed, industrialized democracies and members of the OECD. Simple linear regressions were made using the most recent national data for union density, wealth inequality, and subjective well-being. Regression analysis was performed on the most recent data points of the countries as a group, and for each country individually over a period of time. There was a moderate-strong, negative correlation (R = - 0.608) for the regression of wealth inequality versus union density, yet inconsistent correlation coefficients between countries individually. There was a moderate-weak, positive correlation (R = 0.353) for the regression of subjective well-being versus union density, with more consistent correlation coefficients between countries individually.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Se Mi Yu ◽  
Sung Jun Kim ◽  
Yeong Cheol Yoon ◽  
Jong Hoon Kim

AbstractThe evaluation of chemical similarity is very significant for the evaluation and standardization of the quality of herbal medicines as the biological activity of herbal medicines depends on the composition and proportion of many individual components. Many health organizations have recommended chemical profiling for the quality and consistency evaluation of herbal medicines. In this study, chemical profiling was performed to evaluate the similarity between batches of Pelargonium sidoides maltodextrin mixture (PMM) from EPs® 7630, a Pelargonium sidoides extract preparation. For chemical profile analysis, 7 common peaks were selected from 27 different PMM batches and specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision tests were performed to develop the analytical method. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the similarity for all 27 batches manufactured over the years were higher than 0.90, indicating that quality consistency is well ensured over the years. This profiling method confirms the chemical profile of various commercial products using not only PMM but also Pelargonium sidoides extract and shows that it can be applied to standardization of quality.

2021 ◽  
Gideon T. Olowe ◽  
Simon I Ovuakporaye ◽  
Bartholomew C. Nwogueze ◽  
Mega O. Oyovwi ◽  
Emmanuel I. Odokuma ◽  

Abstract Background Neonatal mortality has been reported as a major societal health menace across the globe. Hence, this study, which adopted a hospital-based cross-sectional type of experimental research design, aimed at examining the clinical indication of some selected cardiopulmonary and anthropometric indices as key predictive clinical biomarkers for neonatal survival. The subjects were divided into three groups; experimental Group 1 consisted of 80 pre-term neonates within 28 weeks; experimental Group 2 consisted of 80 pre-term neonates within 33 weeks; and the control group, which consisted of 80 apparently healthy, term neonates. For each subject selected, cardio-pulmonary parameters and anthropometric variables were obtained daily and compared. ANOVA, correlation coefficients, and linear regression were used to compare statistical measures. A discrimination accuracy test of previous records using cut points available from previous models was conducted for ease of estimating the possibility of neonatal survival from assayed variables. Results Following data collection, sorting, and analysis, the study found a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in average systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of preterm neonates when compared with term neonates. This, however, was the reverse for DBP, which was proved to have increased in preterm neonates compared to term neonates. The study also observed a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RR and OSL levels of preterm neonates compared to term neonates. Conclusion In conclusion, cardiopulmonary and anthropometric status could be useful predictive biomarkers in clinical trials to provide insight into the extent of compromise in newborn health. This will help to minimize the death of neonates by ensuring a better treatment protocol/regimen is given. A corroborative study with an event-driven approach that assays more molecular or other non-physiological variables is recommended.

Kyeong-Hee Lee ◽  
Won-Kee Lee ◽  
Eun-Seo Jung ◽  
Yoon-Young Choi

We aimed to analyze the trends and associations between the oral and mental health of Korean adolescents using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Surveys. In total, 713,713 adolescents who participated in the surveys were included. To examine trends in oral and mental health, Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the weighted percentages and years, and the regression line slope was assessed to estimate annual changes. A complex sample logistic regression analysis was also performed. Experiencing oral symptoms and suicide-related factors both showed a gradually decreasing trend from 2008 and slight increases in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Compared with adolescents who had no oral symptoms, those with all six oral symptoms showed an increase in suicide attempts in the last 12 months, suicide ideation, and feelings of sadness and despair. In conclusion, experiencing more oral symptoms is associated with an increased risk of suicide-related factors.

2021 ◽  
Rui Lv ◽  
Huaqian Jin ◽  
Mengyao Xie ◽  
Pingping Shu ◽  
Mingli Ouyang ◽  

Abstract Background: There is high morbidity and mortality for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. The aim of our study was to explore the differences in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) emphysema parameters, air trapping parameters, and lung density parameters between patients at high risk and low risk of developing COPD and evaluate their correlation with lung function indicators.Methods: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, we enrolled outpatients from the Physical Examination Center and Respiratory Medicine of The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The patients at risk of developing COPD were ≥40 years-old, had chronic cough or sputum production, and/or had exposure to risk factors for the disease and had not reached the diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into a low-risk group and high-risk group according to FEV1/FVC≥80% and 80%>FEV1/FVC≥70%. The data on clinical characteristics, clinical symptom score, lung function, and HRCT were recorded.Results: 72 COPD high-risk patients and 86 COPD low-risk patients were enrolled in the study, and the air trapping index of the left, right, and bilateral lungs of the high-risk group were significantly higher than those of the low-risk group . Additionally, the mean lung density during expiration was significantly lower than that of the low-risk group. The emphysema index of left, right, and bilateral lungs was negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC (correlation coefficients were -0.33-0.22-0.26). There was a negative correlation between the air trapping index of left and right lungs and bilateral lungs and FEV1/FVC(correlation coefficients were -0.33-0.23-0.28, respectively), and the mean expiratory lung density of left and right lungs and bilateral lungs was positively correlated with FEV1/FVC (correlation coefficients were 0.31, 0.25, 0.29, respectively).Conclusions: The air trapping index and the mean expiratory lung density obtained by HRCT combined with post-processing technology can be used as a basis for distinguishing between people at high risk and low risk for developing COPD. Emphysema index, air trapping index, and mean expiratory lung density shows significantly negative correlation with FEV1/FVC, and this can be used to assess the pulmonary function status of people at risk of developing COPD.

Bidyutt Bikash Hazarika ◽  
Debajyoti Dutta Saikia ◽  
Bidyut Bikash Boruah ◽  
Amrit Kumar Nath

Aim: This paper explores the correlation of the Covid-19 mortality rate with some other developmental variables. This study also attempts to highlight the state-wise variability in mortality rate in the Northeastern region of India. Study Design: The study focuses on eight Northeastern states, correlating the Covid-19 mortality rate and other development (or socio-economic) variables. This study focuses on the region of North East India because there have been few investigations on Covid-19 in the region. This study follows a cross-sectional study design. Duration of the Study: The study was conducted and completed around three months. Methodology: The nature of the correlation between the mortality rate of Covid-19 and the other variables is determined by using the Karl Pearson correlation approach. We began by performing a correlation study and calculating the correlation coefficients. Results: The results demonstrate that all independent variables adversely correlate with the Covid-19 mortality rate. Except for the number of doctors in district hospitals and health spending per capita, which have a moderate negative correlation with the predicted variable, all explanatory factors have a weak negative connection with the death rate. Surprisingly, both the NSDP per Capita and the case positivity rate have negative findings. Another major issue in the findings is that none of the factors statistically link with mortality. Conclusion: This research shows that the more a state's socio-economic infrastructures, notably its health infrastructures, are developed, the lower the mortality rate in a pandemic will be.

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