memory processes
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Leandro da Silva-Sauer ◽  
Ricardo Basso Garcia ◽  
Alan Ehrich de Moura ◽  
Bernardino Fernández-Calvo

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Antoine Ayache ◽  
Myriam Fradon ◽  
Ravindi Nanayakkara ◽  
Andriy Olenko

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 304-312
Gülbün Asuman Yüksel ◽  
Gizem Gürsoy

Background: People with normal functionality have normal cognitive changes associated with the ageing process while many people age without cognitive decline. The most exact effects of age are cognitive impairments in learning, memory, and problem solving. These age-related effects slightly increase or do not change for many years, and do not affect the daily life activities of the person. Methods: To investigate age-related cognitive effects, detailed cognitive evaluations were compared with 20 years intervals in 7 (seven) elderly individuals at Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital in 2019. These individuals are continuing daily life activities and sociocultural relations independently. Mini-mental state examination, verbal memory processes test and visual memory test-Wechsler memory scale for memory processes, digit span test for attention function, verbal fluency, similarities, stroop, and trail-making test for the evaluation of frontal lobe functions, Benton’s line direction determination test for the visuospatial organization have been applied to individuals. Results: In comparison with the cognitive test results applied twenty years ago; immediate memory impairment is evident, abstraction and attention function are relatively less affected. The tests showing the frontal lobe function, the verbal fluency which also reflects the vocabulary information is less affected, while the cognitive impairment is more in consecutive-complex processes. Conclusion: Cognitive functions based on attention, vocabulary and knowledge are substantially preserved with mild improvement in normal ageing. The most important improvement is on executive functions due to the decrease in motor and cognitive processing speed in cases where complex information needs to be processed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Samuel D. McDougle ◽  
Sarah A. Wilterson ◽  
Nicholas B. Turk-Browne ◽  
Jordan A. Taylor

Abstract Classic taxonomies of memory distinguish explicit and implicit memory systems, placing motor skills squarely in the latter branch. This assertion is in part a consequence of foundational discoveries showing significant motor learning in amnesics. Those findings suggest that declarative memory processes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) do not contribute to motor learning. Here, we revisit this issue, testing an individual (L. S. J.) with severe MTL damage on four motor learning tasks and comparing her performance to age-matched controls. Consistent with previous findings in amnesics, we observed that L. S. J. could improve motor performance despite having significantly impaired declarative memory. However, she tended to perform poorly relative to age-matched controls, with deficits apparently related to flexible action selection. Further supporting an action selection deficit, L. S. J. fully failed to learn a task that required the acquisition of arbitrary action–outcome associations. We thus propose a modest revision to the classic taxonomic model: Although MTL-dependent memory processes are not necessary for some motor learning to occur, they play a significant role in the acquisition, implementation, and retrieval of action selection strategies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the neural correlates of motor learning, the psychological mechanisms of skill, and the theory of multiple memory systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (5) ◽  
pp. 333-341
Guilherme M. Lage ◽  
Lidiane A. Fernandes ◽  
Tércio Apolinário-Souza ◽  
Nathálya G. H. M. Nogueira ◽  
Bárbara P. Ferreira

Background: The benefits of variable practice in motor learning have been traditionally explained by the increased demand for memory processes induced by trial-to-trial changes. Recently, a new perspective associating increased demand for perception with variable practice has emerged. Aim: This revision aims to present and discuss the findings in this exciting topic newly opened. Results / Interpretation: In the second half of 2010’s, a number of studies have pointed out differences in perceptual processing when compared variable and repetitive practices. Different levels of (a) hemodynamic activation, (b) electroencephalographic activity, (c) neurochemical activity, and (d) oculomotor behavior have provided evidence that perceptual processes are affected differently by variable and repetitive practices.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107575
Leon Candela Sofía ◽  
Bonilla Matías ◽  
Urreta Benítez Facundo ◽  
Brusco Luis Ignacio ◽  
Wang Jingyi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-82
Claudia Spiridon

Abstract Carmen Francesca Bancius trilogy that includes the novels Vaterflucht (1998), Das Lied der traurigen Mutter (2007) und Lebt Wohl, Ihr Genossen und Geliebten! (2018) make from a cultural-historical perspective individual and collective memory processes in post-communist Romania visible. Her last work shows most clearly what shifts the culture of remembrance underwent in post-communist Romania, and how the tone of remembrance changed from a radical criticism of the system in the 1990s to a conciliatory narrative in the 2000s. Considering the dominant memory discourses in non-literary spaces, the present contribution analyses the aesthetic possibilities that Banciu explores in order to humanize the image of the unscrupulous communist official that dominated her narrative in Vaterflucht (1998), and Das Lied der traurigen Mutter (2007).

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