state level
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-36
Jiyan Chen

ABSTRACT Introduction: Improving cardiovascular function is one of the main training goals of many sports. Objective: To understand the characteristics of the cardiovascular response of athletes under different training conditions. Methods: Thirty male basketball students were enrolled. The subjects were divided into A and B groups according to their years of training, with 15 students in each group. Exercise fatigue tests were performed, starting at a low intensity and gradually increasing the load to a relatively high degree of fatigue. Results: The RMSSD value was 42.82±31.41ms in group A and 46.48±35.26ms in group B undera low fatigue state. The LF/HF value of the athletes in group A was 2.86±1.47 and the LF/HF value of the athletes in group B was 2.94±1.68. The RMSSD value was 40.78±31.17ms and 32.37±36.42ms for groups A and B, respectively, undera high fatigue state. Conclusions: Athletes with more years of training can mobilize more cardiac reserves to meet the increase in exercise load in a fatigue state and have better autonomic nervous regulation in the process of reaching a higher degree of fatigue state. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jian Cao ◽  
Seo-young Silvia Kim ◽  
R. Michael Alvarez

Abstract How do we ensure a statewide voter registration database’s accuracy and integrity, especially when the database depends on aggregating decentralized, sub-state data with different list maintenance practices? We develop a Bayesian multivariate multilevel model to account for correlated patterns of change over time in multiple response variables, and label statewide anomalies using deviations from model predictions. We apply our model to California’s 22 million registered voters, using 25 snapshots from the 2020 presidential election. We estimate countywide change rates for multiple response variables such as changes in voter’s partisan affiliation and jointly model these changes. The model outperforms a simple interquartile range (IQR) detection when tested with synthetic data. This is a proof-of-concept that demonstrates the utility of the Bayesian methodology, as despite the heterogeneity in list maintenance practices, a principled, statistical approach is useful. At the county level, the total numbers of anomalies are positively correlated with the average election cost per registered voter between 2017 and 2019. Given the recent efforts to modernize and secure voter list maintenance procedures in the For the People Act of 2021, we argue that checking whether counties or municipalities are behaving similarly at the state level is also an essential step in ensuring electoral integrity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002214652110698
Simone Rambotti

Suicide is steadily rising. Many blamed worsening economic conditions for this trend. Sociological theory established clear pathways between joblessness and suicide focused on status threat, shame, and consequent disruption of social relationships. However, recent empirical research provides little support for a link between unemployment and suicide. I attempt to reconcile this contradiction by focusing on white suicide and white employment-to-population ratio. Whiteness is not just a default category but a pervasive ideology that amplifies the effects of status loss. The white employment-to-population ratio represents a form of racialized economic threat and accounts for discouraged workers who have exited the labor force. I use longitudinal hybrid models with U.S. state-level data, 2000 to 2016, and find that decreasing employment is associated with increasing suicide among the white population and white men. I discuss this study’s contributions to the literature on suicide and joblessness and the emerging scholarship on whiteness and health.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 157
Abhishek Mallela ◽  
Jacob Neumann ◽  
Ely F. Miller ◽  
Ye Chen ◽  
Richard G. Posner ◽  

Although many persons in the United States have acquired immunity to COVID-19, either through vaccination or infection with SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 will pose an ongoing threat to non-immune persons so long as disease transmission continues. We can estimate when sustained disease transmission will end in a population by calculating the population-specific basic reproduction number , the expected number of secondary cases generated by an infected person in the absence of any interventions. The value of relates to a herd immunity threshold (HIT), which is given by . When the immune fraction of a population exceeds this threshold, sustained disease transmission becomes exponentially unlikely (barring mutations allowing SARS-CoV-2 to escape immunity). Here, we report state-level estimates obtained using Bayesian inference. Maximum a posteriori estimates range from 7.1 for New Jersey to 2.3 for Wyoming, indicating that disease transmission varies considerably across states and that reaching herd immunity will be more difficult in some states than others. estimates were obtained from compartmental models via the next-generation matrix approach after each model was parameterized using regional daily confirmed case reports of COVID-19 from 21 January 2020 to 21 June 2020. Our estimates characterize the infectiousness of ancestral strains, but they can be used to determine HITs for a distinct, currently dominant circulating strain, such as SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta (lineage B.1.617.2), if the relative infectiousness of the strain can be ascertained. On the basis of Delta-adjusted HITs, vaccination data, and seroprevalence survey data, we found that no state had achieved herd immunity as of 20 September 2021.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000312242110699
Margot I. Jackson ◽  
Daniel Schneider

Families and governments are the primary sources of investment in children, providing access to basic resources and other developmental opportunities. Recent research identifies significant class gaps in parental investments that contribute to high levels of inequality by family income and education. State-level public investments in children and families have the potential to reduce class inequality in children’s developmental environments by affecting parents’ behavior. Using newly assembled administrative data from 1998 to 2014, linked to household-level data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we examine how public-sector investment in income support, health, and education is associated with the private expenditures of low- and high-SES parents on developmental items for children. Are class gaps in parental investments in children narrower in contexts of higher public investment for children and families? We find that more generous public spending for children and families is associated with significantly narrower class gaps in private parental investments. Furthermore, we find that equalization is driven by bottom-up increases in low-SES households’ developmental spending in response to progressive state investments of income support and health, and by top-down decreases in high-SES households’ developmental spending in response to universal state investment in public education.

2022 ◽  
Anusua Datta ◽  
Willie Oglesby ◽  
Brandon George

Abstract Background. Medicaid is a major payer of substance use disorder treatment, yet the impact of Medicaid expansion on the opioid epidemic has not been sufficiently quantified. This study exploits state-level differences in Medicaid expansion to assess the impact of access to health insurance on treatment utilization for opioid use disorder (OUD) for adults in need.Method. We use admissions data from Treatment Episode Data Sets (TEDS) to fit a multivariate difference-in-difference model, with non-expanding states as controls, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and other state-level factors. Results. Medicaid expansion led to substantial gain in OUD treatment utilization. Admissions for substance use disorder among Medicaid beneficiaries increased by 20-33 percentage points in expansion states. Admissions were significantly higher for the newly eligible Medicaid beneficiaries in the 30-34 age group. We also see an increase in treatment admissions for opioid and heroin use among the elderly over the age of 55. Uninsurance rates show a commensurate decline in the expansion states. Finally, we do not find strong evidence of crowding-out of private insurance. Conclusions. Overall, our findings suggest that Medicaid expansions had a positive impact on the financing and utilization of opioid use treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 87-101
M. R. Zazulina

The paper analyzes the changes in the content of the civilizational idea in modern Russia. It is shown that the substantive changes concern both the traditional fluctuations between the orientation to the European and Eurasian development path, and the emergence of new features, in particular related to environmental and economic issues. At the same time, there is a reconfiguration of the civilizational idea regarding economic and political discourses. There is a fusion of civilizational identity with political identity, which manifests itself in the form of active use of national-state resources for the formation of national-civilizational identity. It is concluded that at the state level, civilizational identity is supported by political and economic discourses, and the Russian-Eurasian discourse itself is being transformed, turning from a discourse about the integration of cultures into a discourse about the integration of economies based on the integration of cultures.

2022 ◽  
Matthew K Wynia ◽  
Laurel E Beaty ◽  
Tellen D Bennett ◽  
Nichole E Carlson ◽  
Christopher B Davis ◽  

Background: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are authorized for early symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Whether mAbs are effective against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, among vaccinated patients, or for prevention of mortality remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mAb treatment in preventing progression to severe disease during the Delta phase of the pandemic and based on key baseline risk factors. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational cohort study of non-hospitalized adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from November 2020-October 2021, using electronic health records from a statewide health system plus state-level vaccine and mortality data. Using propensity matching, we selected approximately 2.5 patients not receiving mAbs for each patient who received mAbs. Exposure: Neutralizing mAb treatment under emergency use authorization Main Outcomes: The primary outcome was 28-day hospitalization; secondary outcomes included mortality and severity of hospitalization. Results: Of 36,077 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2,675 receiving mAbs were matched to 6,677 not receiving mAbs. Compared to mAb-untreated patients, mAb-treated patients had lower all-cause hospitalization (4.0% vs 7.7%; adjusted OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.38-0.60) and all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 0.9%; adjusted OR 0.11, 95%CI 0.03-0.29) to day 28; differences persisted to day 90. Among hospitalized patients, mAb-treated patients had shorter hospital length of stay (5.8 vs. 8.5 days) and lower risk of mechanical ventilation (4.6% vs. 16.6%). Relative effectiveness was similar in preventing hospitalizations during the Delta variant phase (adjusted OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.25-0.50) and across subgroups. Lower number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to prevent hospitalization were observed for subgroups with higher baseline risk of hospitalization (e.g., multiple comorbidities (NNT=17) and not fully vaccinated (NNT=24) vs. no comorbidities (NNT=88) and fully vaccinated (NNT=81). Conclusion: Real-world evidence demonstrated mAb effectiveness in reducing hospitalization among COVID-19 outpatients, including during the Delta variant phase, and conferred an overall 89% reduction in 28-day mortality. Early outpatient treatment with mAbs should be prioritized, especially for individuals with highest risk for hospitalization.

Significance Once considered the means by which US states could act as ‘laboratories of democracy’ that find new ways to improve governance, the recent construction of federalism as prioritising state autonomy is producing unevenness in democratic practices that is affecting the established rights of individuals. Impacts The erosion of common standards in states’ electoral procedures will further reduce overall trust in the democratic process. Political divisions between state and federal governments will increase during the remainder of the Biden presidency. Emphasising splits with Washington on civil rights issues camouflages state-level economic changes which will also impact voters. Aided by interest groups, states are drafting appeal-proof laws which reduce the ability of courts to enforce national standards.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document