mortality data
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R.F. Faustino ◽  
C.A.D. Silva ◽  
J.C. Zanuncio ◽  
J.R. Pereira ◽  
A.I.A. Pereira

Abstract The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key cotton crop pest in Brazil. Adverse climatic factors, such as high temperatures and low soil moisture, dehydrate oviposited cotton squares (bud flowers) on the ground and cause high mortality of its offspring within these plant structures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mortality of the cotton boll weevil in drip and sprinkler irrigated cotton crops. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with two treatments: drip (T1) and sprinkler (T2, control) irrigated cotton crops with sixteen replications. Each parcel had one emergence cage, installed between two cotton rows per irrigation system, with 37 cotton squares with opened oviposition punctures and yellowish bracts, to capture adult cotton boll weevils. The average number of boll weevils that emerged from the cotton squares and the causes of mortality at different development stages were determined per treatment. Third-generation life tables of the boll weevil were prepared using the natural mortality data in drip and sprinkler irrigation treatments and plus actual, apparent and indispensable mortality rates and the lethality of each mortality cause. We conclude that the application of water directly to the root zone of the plants in a targeted manner, using the drip irrigation system, can cause high mortality of the cotton boll weevil immature stages inside cotton squares fallen on the ground. This is because the cotton squares fallen on the drier and hotter soil between the rows of drip-irrigated cotton dehydrates causing the boll weevils to die. This is important because it can reduce its population density of the pest and, consequently, the number of applications of chemical insecticides for its control. Thus, contributing to increase the viability of cotton production, mainly in areas of the Brazilian semiarid region where the cotton is cultivated in organic system.

2022 ◽  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

2022 ◽  
Patrick Heuveline

Timely, high-quality mortality data have allowed for assessments of the impact of Covid-19 on life expectancies in upper-middle- and high-income countries. Extant data, though imperfect, suggest that the bulk of the pandemic-induced mortality might have occurred elsewhere. This article reports on changes in life expectancies around the world as far as they can be estimated from the evidence available at the end of 2021. The global life expectancy appears to have declined by .92 years between 2019 and 2020 and by another .72 years between 2020 and 2021, but the decline seems to have ended during the last quarter of 2021. Uncertainty about its exact size aside, this represents the first decline in global life expectancy since 1950, the first year for which a global estimate is available from the United Nations. Annual declines in life expectancy (from a 12-month period to the next) appear to have exceeded two years at some point before the end of 2021 in at least 50 countries. Since 1950, annual declines of that magnitude had only been observed in rare occasions, such as Cambodia in the 1970s, Rwanda in the 1990s, and possibly some sub-Saharan African nations at the peak of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Manuel Cano ◽  
Camila Gelpi-Acosta

This study examined differences across Latine heritage groups (i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central American, South American) in rates of US drug overdose mortality. The study utilized 2015-2019 mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics for 29,137 Hispanic individuals who died of drug overdose. Using population estimates from the American Community Survey, age-standardized drug overdose mortality rates were calculated by specific Latine heritage and sex, nativity, educational attainment, and geographic region. Standardized rate ratios (SRRs), incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from negative binomial regression models, and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated, and multiple imputation was used for missing Latine heritage group in select models. Drug overdose mortality rates in the Puerto Rican heritage population were more than three times as high as in the Mexican heritage population (IRR 3.61 [95% CI 3.02-4.30] in unadjusted model; IRR 3.70 [95% CI 3.31-4.15] in model adjusting for age, sex, nativity, educational attainment, and region; SRR 3.23 [95% CI, 3.15-3.32] in age-standardized model with missing Hispanic heritage imputed). Higher age-standardized rates of drug overdose mortality were observed in males than females across all Latine groups, yet the magnitude of the sex differential varied by Latine heritage. The relationship between drug overdose mortality and nativity differed by Latine heritage; in all groups except Puerto Rican, overdose mortality rates were significantly higher in the US-born than those not US-born. In contrast, overdose mortality rates were significantly lower in US-born Puerto Ricans than in Puerto Ricans who were not US-born (e.g., born in Puerto Rico; SRR, 0.84 [95% CI 0.80-0.88]). The relationship between drug overdose mortality and educational attainment (for ages 25+) also varied between Latine groups. The diverse subgroups comprising the US Latine population vary not only in rates of drug overdose mortality, but also in demographic risk factors for fatal drug overdose.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (01) ◽  
pp. 508-518
Richmond Nsiah ◽  
Wisdom Takramah ◽  
Solomon Anum-Doku ◽  
Richard Avagu ◽  
Dominic Nyarko

Background: Stillbirths and neonatal deaths when poorly documented or collated, negatively affect the quality of decision and interventions. This study sought to assess the quality of routine neonatal mortalities and stillbirth records in health facilities and propose interventions to improve the data quality gaps. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study was employed. This study was carried out at three (3) purposively selected health facilities in Offinso North district. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths recorded in registers from 2015 to 2017, were recounted and compared with monthly aggregated data and District Health Information Management System 2 (DHIMS 2) data using a self-developed Excel Data Quality Assessment Tool (DQS).  An observational checklist was used to collect primary data on completeness and availability. Accuracy ratio (verification factor), discrepancy rate, percentage availability and completeness of stillbirths and neonatal mortality data were computed using the DQS tool. Findings: The results showed high discrepancy rate of stillbirth data recorded in registers compared with monthly aggregated reports (12.5%), and monthly aggregated reports compared with DHIMS 2 (13.5%). Neonatal mortalities data were under-reported in monthly aggregated reports, but over-reported in DHIMS 2. Overall data completeness was about 84.6%, but only 68.5% of submitted reports were supervised by facility in-charges. Delivery and admission registers availability were 100% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Quality of stillbirths and neonatal mortality data in the district is generally encouraging, but are not reliable for decision-making. Routine data quality audit is needed to reduce high discrepancies in stillbirth and neonatal mortality data in the district.

2022 ◽  
Matthew K Wynia ◽  
Laurel E Beaty ◽  
Tellen D Bennett ◽  
Nichole E Carlson ◽  
Christopher B Davis ◽  

Background: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are authorized for early symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Whether mAbs are effective against the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, among vaccinated patients, or for prevention of mortality remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mAb treatment in preventing progression to severe disease during the Delta phase of the pandemic and based on key baseline risk factors. Design, Setting, and Patients: Observational cohort study of non-hospitalized adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from November 2020-October 2021, using electronic health records from a statewide health system plus state-level vaccine and mortality data. Using propensity matching, we selected approximately 2.5 patients not receiving mAbs for each patient who received mAbs. Exposure: Neutralizing mAb treatment under emergency use authorization Main Outcomes: The primary outcome was 28-day hospitalization; secondary outcomes included mortality and severity of hospitalization. Results: Of 36,077 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2,675 receiving mAbs were matched to 6,677 not receiving mAbs. Compared to mAb-untreated patients, mAb-treated patients had lower all-cause hospitalization (4.0% vs 7.7%; adjusted OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.38-0.60) and all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 0.9%; adjusted OR 0.11, 95%CI 0.03-0.29) to day 28; differences persisted to day 90. Among hospitalized patients, mAb-treated patients had shorter hospital length of stay (5.8 vs. 8.5 days) and lower risk of mechanical ventilation (4.6% vs. 16.6%). Relative effectiveness was similar in preventing hospitalizations during the Delta variant phase (adjusted OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.25-0.50) and across subgroups. Lower number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to prevent hospitalization were observed for subgroups with higher baseline risk of hospitalization (e.g., multiple comorbidities (NNT=17) and not fully vaccinated (NNT=24) vs. no comorbidities (NNT=88) and fully vaccinated (NNT=81). Conclusion: Real-world evidence demonstrated mAb effectiveness in reducing hospitalization among COVID-19 outpatients, including during the Delta variant phase, and conferred an overall 89% reduction in 28-day mortality. Early outpatient treatment with mAbs should be prioritized, especially for individuals with highest risk for hospitalization.

2022 ◽  
Mio Kushibuchi ◽  
Chiaki Okuse ◽  
Kenya Ie ◽  
Kotaro Matsunaga ◽  
Tomoya Tsuchida ◽  

Abstract Background: Alcohol liver cirrhosis is a life-threatening condition, especially if alcohol cessation is not accomplished. Past studies have shown that alcohol abuse is closely linked to low socioeconomic status and social marginalization. Public assistance (PA), or Seikatsu-hogo, a Japanese public assistance ensuring medical care to low-income population, was employed as a proxy for social marginalization. This study aims to investigate the prognostic effect of being a PA recipient on overall mortality in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.Methods: Patients diagnosed as alcoholic liver cirrhosis in a community hospital between 2006 to 2017 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Baseline demographics and mortality data were extracted from electronic health records. Cirrhosis severity at baseline was measured by mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) score. Primary outcome was survival probability obtained by the Kapan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: 244 participants were included, among which 62 were PA recipients. Baseline cirrhosis severity score was not different between the two groups. Incidence proportion for overall mortality was 48.4% and 31.9% for PA recipients and non-PA recipients, respectively (p=0.002). In cox regression model, adjusted for age, ALBI score and HCV infection, hazard ratio for PA reception was1.57 (95% CI: 0.97-2.5, p=0.06). Conclusions: Being a PA recipient may be a poor prognostic factor of mortality in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jamie Perin ◽  
Yue Chu ◽  
Francisco Villaviciencio ◽  
Austin Schumacher ◽  
Tyler McCormick ◽  

Abstract Background The mortality pattern from birth to age five is known to vary by underlying cause of mortality, which has been documented in multiple instances. Many countries without high functioning vital registration systems could benefit from estimates of age- and cause-specific mortality to inform health programming, however, to date the causes of under-five death have only been described for broad age categories such as for neonates (0–27 days), infants (0–11 months), and children age 12–59 months. Methods We adapt the log quadratic model to mortality patterns for children under five to all-cause child mortality and then to age- and cause-specific mortality (U5ACSM). We apply these methods to empirical sample registration system mortality data in China from 1996 to 2015. Based on these empirical data, we simulate probabilities of mortality in the case when the true relationships between age and mortality by cause are known. Results We estimate U5ACSM within 0.1–0.7 deaths per 1000 livebirths in hold out strata for life tables constructed from the China sample registration system, representing considerable improvement compared to an error of 1.2 per 1000 livebirths using a standard approach. This improved prediction error for U5ACSM is consistently demonstrated for all-cause as well as pneumonia- and injury-specific mortality. We also consistently identified cause-specific mortality patterns in simulated mortality scenarios. Conclusion The log quadratic model is a significant improvement over the standard approach for deriving U5ACSM based on both simulation and empirical results.

Giacomo De Nicola ◽  
Göran Kauermann ◽  
Michael Höhle

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a very high number of casualties in the general population. Assessing the exact magnitude of this number is a non-trivial problem, as relying only on officially reported COVID-19 associated fatalities runs the risk of incurring in several kinds of biases. One of the ways to approach the issue is to compare overall mortality during the pandemic with expected mortality computed using the observed mortality figures of previous years. In this paper, we build on existing methodology and propose two ways to compute expected as well as excess mortality, namely at the weekly and at the yearly level. Particular focus is put on the role of age, which plays a central part in both COVID-19-associated and overall mortality. We illustrate our methods by making use of age-stratified mortality data from the years 2016 to 2020 in Germany to compute age group-specific excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Alicia V. Gayle ◽  
Cosetta Minelli ◽  
Jennifer K. Quint

Abstract Background Distinguishing between mortality attributed to respiratory causes and other causes among people with asthma, COPD, and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is important. This study used electronic health records in England to estimate excess risk of death from respiratory-related causes after accounting for other causes of death. Methods We used linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care and Office for National Statistics mortality data to identify adults with asthma and COPD from 2005 to 2015. Causes of death were ascertained using death certificates. Hazard ratios (HR) and excess risk of death were estimated using Fine-Gray competing risk models and adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results 65,021 people with asthma and 45,649 with COPD in the CPRD dataset were frequency matched 5:1 with people without the disease on age, sex and general practice. Only 14 in 100,000 people with asthma are predicted to experience a respiratory-related death up to 10 years post-diagnosis, whereas in COPD this is 98 in 100,000. Asthma is associated with an 0.01% excess incidence of respiratory related mortality whereas COPD is associated with an 0.07% excess. Among people with asthma-COPD overlap (N = 22,145) we observed an increased risk of respiratory-related death compared to those with asthma alone (HR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.21–1.40) but not COPD alone (HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.83–0.94). Conclusions Asthma and COPD are associated with an increased risk of respiratory-related death after accounting for other causes; however, diagnosis of COPD carries a much higher probability. ACO is associated with a lower risk compared to COPD alone but higher risk compared to asthma alone.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document