sociological theory
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2022 ◽  
pp. 002214652110698
Simone Rambotti

Suicide is steadily rising. Many blamed worsening economic conditions for this trend. Sociological theory established clear pathways between joblessness and suicide focused on status threat, shame, and consequent disruption of social relationships. However, recent empirical research provides little support for a link between unemployment and suicide. I attempt to reconcile this contradiction by focusing on white suicide and white employment-to-population ratio. Whiteness is not just a default category but a pervasive ideology that amplifies the effects of status loss. The white employment-to-population ratio represents a form of racialized economic threat and accounts for discouraged workers who have exited the labor force. I use longitudinal hybrid models with U.S. state-level data, 2000 to 2016, and find that decreasing employment is associated with increasing suicide among the white population and white men. I discuss this study’s contributions to the literature on suicide and joblessness and the emerging scholarship on whiteness and health.

2022 ◽  
Freeden Blume Oeur

Michael Burawoy’s 2021 essay, “Decolonizing Sociology: The Significance of W.E.B. Du Bois,” forges dialogues between the scholar denied and established theorists with the aim of reconstructing the sociological canon. My commentary situates the author’s essay and his own Du Boisian turn in a long career dedicated to reflexive science and recomposing theory. I reflect on the seemingly innocuous notion of a dialogue itself: its implications for sociological theory and practice, and how it supports decolonial efforts. Thinking with Toni Morrison, Hazel Carby, Lisa Lowe, and others, I offer a sketch of a decolonial methodology—what I call a Du Boisian shadowplay—that brings into view the intimate dimensions of imperialism. Ultimately, such a feminist methodology reconstructs dialogues that reflect on researcher standpoints and nested imperial histories; and in the face of today’s social crises, nurtures dialogues that are animated by an ethic of love.

Phumla Hlengiwe Shamase

The provision of a Learning Management System (LMS) for use in distributed, blended or open distance e-learning as a management tool has become a basic standard requirement in higher learning institutions globally. Many students and lecturers use an LMS in support of innovative and engaged teaching and learning, both inside and outside the classroom—whether blended or open leaning. However, many academics choose not to make use of the institutional LMS. This is the specific issue that this study addresses, with a particular focus on the role played by disciplinary differences in the uptake of an LMS. The research question guiding the study is thus: To what extent do disciplinary differences affect the uptake of an LMS? The research study drew on Legitimation Code Theory, a sociological theory that explains the knowledge principles underpinning practices, in this case, the practice of the uptake (or non-uptake) of an institutional LMS. The study made use of quantitative data collection and data analysis methods, drawing on the institutional LMS activity data. The study found that there was a significant relationship between the disciplines and LMS uptake. However, the study also found a number of unexpected exceptions, where the nature of the discipline did not seem to impact uptake or non-uptake. The contribution that the study makes is to show the significant role that the academics’ home discipline plays in LMS uptake.

Archivaria ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 6-47
Colin Post

Artists have long engaged with digital and networked technologies in critical and creative ways to explore both new art forms and novel ways of disseminating artworks. Net-based artworks are often created with the intent to circulate outside traditional institutional spaces, and many are shared via artist-run platforms that involve curatorial practices distinct from those of museums or commercial galleries. This article focuses on a particular artist-run platform called Paper-Thin, characterizing the activities involved in managing the platform as digital curation in a polysemous sense – as both the curation of digital artworks and the stewardship of digital information in a complex technological ecosystem. While scholars and cultural heritage professionals have developed innovative preservation strategies for digital and new media artworks housed in institutional collections, the ongoing care of artworks shared through networked alternative spaces is largely carried out co-operatively by the artists and curators of these platforms. Drawing on Howard Becker’s sociological theory of art worlds as networks of co-operative actors, this article describes the patterns of co-operative work involved in creating, exhibiting, and then caring for Net-based art. The article outlines the importance, for cultural heritage professionals, of understanding the digital-curation practices of artists, as these artist-run networked platforms demonstrate emergent approaches to the stewardship of digital culture that move beyond a custodial paradigm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 233-255
Li Wenqi ◽  
Li Zhang

Traditional sociological theory explains that a rural community is an enclosed unit. China’s fast modernization and urbanization, however, display a rather different phenomenon, where rural communities are changing into open communities, which face the dual task of rebuilding internal relations and expanding external resources. Based on this background and practical cognition, the theoretical framework of the ‘new rural communitas’ is proposed, which expands the common enclosed relationships in traditional rural communities into new, open co-construction relationships with endogenous power as core, government power as support, and social power as coordination, emphasizing the full cooperation of these three types of power. On the basis of the theory, this article employs the practice of the rural regeneration policy in Taiwan as an empirical case, and analyzes how these three types of power affect and cooperate with each other. Furthermore, interviews have been conducted with local community members, government officers, and social participants in three communities in Taiwan to give examples of three different types of new rural communitas. Finally, several suggestions toward constructing new rural communitas are discussed.   Abstrak. Teori tradisional dalam sosiologi menjelaskan bahwa komunitas perdesaan adalah unit yang tertutup. Modernisasi dan urbanisasi cepat yang terjadi di China menampilkan fenomena yang sedikit berbeda, dimana komunitas perdesaan berubah menjadi komunitas yang terbuka yang menghadapi tugas ganda membangun kembali hubungan internal dan memperluas sumber daya eksternal. Berdasarkan latar belakang dan kognisi praktis ini, kerangka teoritis ‘komunitas perdesaan baru’ diusulkan, sehingga dapat memperluas hubungan tertutup bersama dalam komunitas perdesaan tradisional menjadi hubungan ko-kontruksi baru yang terbuka dengan kekuatan endogen sebagai inti, kekuatan pemerintah sebagai pendukung, dan kekuasaan social sebagai koordinasi serta menekankan kerjasama penuh dari ketiga jenis kekuasaan tersebut. Berdasarkan teori tersebut, artikel ini menggunakan praktik kebijakan regenerasi perdesaan di Taiwan sebagai kasus empiris, dan menganalisis bagaimana ketiga jenis kekuasaan ini saling mempengaruhi dan bekerja sama. Selanjutnya, wawancara telah dilakukan dengan anggota masyarakat setempat, pejabat pemerintah, dan peserta sosial di tiga komunitas di Taiwan untuk memberikan contoh tiga jenis komunitas perdesaan baru yang berbeda. Akhirnya, beberapa  saran untuk membangun komunitas perdesaan baru juga dibahas.   Kata kunci. Komunitas perdesaan, komunitas, regenerasi perdesaan, Cina, Taiwan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 697-710
I. A. Latypov

Counterfinality is defined as unintended consequences of the uncoordinated actions of rationally acting individuals. Even before the concept was introduced by Sartre and developed by Elster, counterfinality was considered by many scholars. Some defined counterfinality as a type of social paradoxes and dilemmas, others - as an outcome of social interaction. Description and analysis of such social contradictions and paradoxes can be found in the works of Hobbes, Mandeville, Smith, Marx and Hegel. In the 20th century, sociologists also considered the issue of unintended consequences. Many classic papers of Merton contributed to the sociological analysis of the unintended consequences of intentional actions. Subsequent works focused on their classifications, and the phenomenon of counterfinality was highlighted in almost every classification. The term counterfinality was introduced by Sartre as an appendage of history, an unforeseen consequence of many interactions. The sociological study of counterfinality was initiated by Elster. He analyzes counterfinality not within the functionalist paradigm, but in the methodological individualism perspective, and for him, counterfinality acts as a basis for social change. The authors analysis of the main ideas of Sartre, Elster and other authors on counterfinality reveals its distinctive features in general and in the sociological analysis of social action in particular. The author argues that today the counterfinality theory consists mainly of responses and criticism of the ideas of Sartre and Elster, and that further sociological research should focus on conditions, features and consequences of counterfinality, and on its empirical indicators.

2021 ◽  
pp. 52-55
Yu.V. Karavaeva ◽  

This study analyzed the category of “interest” in the structure of the sociological theory and practice of modern management. The importance of interest in such a scientific field as the sociology of management is described and its role in the study of social management, considered as a specific sphere of human activity, is substantiated. As a result of the analysis, the place of interests in the activities of the subject of social management is revealed, characterized by the internal inconsistency of his interests and the need for their coordination. The importance of interests in the formation of the activity of the object of social management is determined and the main indicators of their state are described: social integration, cohesion, solidarity, social consensus. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of the effectiveness of management decisions described both from the standpoint of the effectiveness of resource use and from the standpoint of achieving the goals of social management. The technological aspect of taking into account interests in the process of social management is considered, which manifests itself in the use of social technologies that contribute to the optimization of managerial influences. The article describes the importance of taking into account interests (personal, group, social) in the process of social technologization. The connection of interests with the methods and principles of social management reflecting the social essence of its social mechanism is explained. Among the principles, the most significant ones are considered from the perspective of taking into account interests: the principles of social orientation of management, humanization of management, consistency of personal and organizational goals, delegation of authority and management through the team.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 204-230

This article presents the sociological typology of crimes developed by Durkheim for his course in criminal sociology of 1892–1893, of which a complete set of notes by his nephew and student Mauss was found among descendants in 2018. It can be broken down into four types of crimes: ataxic (theft, vagrancy), altruistic (homicide), alcoholic (blows and wounds, insults), anomic (fraudulent bankruptcy, swindling). This original typology in many ways announced the typology of suicides that would appear in 1897, and shows Durkheim’s sociological theory at that time, while he was defending his thesis in 1893, at the end of that academic year. It sheds new light on the notions of regulation and integration and suggests the articulation between collective representations and social life, while Durkheim has not yet had his “revelation” (1894–1895). Cet article présente la typologie sociologique des crimes élaborée par Durkheim pour son cours de sociologie criminelle de 1892–1893 dont un jeu de notes complet de son neveu et étudiant Mauss a été retrouvé chez des descendants en 2018. Elle se décompose en quatre types ou espèces de crimes : ataxiques (vols, vagabondage), altruistes (homicides), alcooliques (injures et coups et blessures) et anomiques. Cette typologie inédite préfigure, sur de nombreux aspects, la typologie des suicides qui paraîtra en 1897, et donne à voir la théorie sociologique de Durkheim à cet instant, alors qu’il soutient sa thèse à la fin de cette même année universitaire. Elle éclaire d’un nouveau jour les notions de régulation et d’intégration, alors à l’état de gestation, et donne à penser sur l’articulation entre les représentations collectives et la vie sociale, alors que Durkheim n’a pas encore eu sa « révélation » pour mener à bien son programme de sociologie religieuse (1894–1895).

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 168-195
Abd Hannan

This study examines the challenges and opportunities for development in Madura amid the adoption of a new habit era due to the global pandemic, Covid-19. There are three main problems examined in this study; Econimi development in Madura, the era of new habits, and Covid-19. By using qualitative research and analysis based on the sociological theory of development, this study finds a number of findings; first, the dynamics of development in Madura in the midst of the adoption of a new habit era in general experienced quite serious upheavals or shocks, especially in the economic development sector. Second, the opportunities for strengthening Madura development in the midst of the new custom era are relatively open. This is influenced by the geographical condition of Madura as an archipelago which has abundant natural-social wealth, especially those originating from the maritime sector. Empowerment and utilization of natural resources, especially those based on local wisdom, can become a strategy in the midst of turbulent national-global economic chains; Third, to maximize these efforts, it is necessary to have collaboration and synergy with related parties, especially the government. In addition to ensuring the implementation of health protocols, it is equally important to ensure the financial power of the community. Providing stimulus packages, both fiscal and non-fiscal, so that later it can push the wheels of the regional economy. This is at the same time the biggest challenge, how to ensure that the distribution of the stimulus package is carried out in a measured, fast, and on target, as well as touching on fundamental sectors. (Studi ini mengkaji tantangan dan peluang pembangunan ekonomi di Madura di tengah diterapkannya era kebiasaan baru akibat pandemi global, Covid-19. Terdapat tiga permasalahan pokok yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini; pembangunan Madura, era kebiasaan baru, dan Covid-19. Dengan mempergunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dan analisa berdasarkan teori sosiologi pembangunan, kajian ini mendapati sejumlah temuan; pertama, dinamika pembangunan di Madura di tengah penerapan era kebiasaan baru secara umum mengalami gejolak atau guncangan cukup serius, khususnya di sektor pembangunan ekonomi. Kedua, peluang penguatan pembangunan di Madura di tengah diberlakukannya era kebiasaan baru relatif terbuka. Demikian dipengaruhi oleh kondisi geografis Madura sebagai daerah kepulauan yang mempunyai kekayaan alam-sosial cukup melimpah, terutama yang bersumber dari sektor kemaritiman. Pemberdaayaan dan pemanfaatan kekayaan alam khususnya yang berbasis kearifan lokal dapat menjadi strategi di tengah gejolak rantai ekonomi nasional-global yang tidak menentu; Ketiga, untuk memaksimalkan upaya tersebut, perlu adanya kolaborasi dan sinergitas antara pemerintah dan elemen masyarakat. Selain memastikan jalannya protokol kesehatan, pun tak kalah pentingnya adalah memastikan daya finansial masyarakat. Memberi paket stimulus baik fiskal maupun nonfiskal, sehingga nantinya dapat mendorong roda perekonomian daerah. Ini sekaligus menjadi tantangan terbesar, bagaimana memastikan distribusi paket stimulus tersebut dilakukan secara terukur, cepat, dan tepat sasaran, serta menyentuh sektor-sektor fundamental.)

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 679-699

ABSTRACT This paper seeks to contribute to the advancement of studies on the National State and economic development. For that, I used an original and singular transdisciplinary approach based on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological theory and economic history. The methodological procedures were bibliographic research of historical and inductive analysis of the economy. The results obtained were that, for the construction of a National Developmental State, society, first, needs to establish meta-capital and meta-field immersed in the developmental precepts and concentrators of soft power and hard power to, subsequently, execute the project of expansion, integration and sophistication of the productive structure.

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