exercise load
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-36
Jiyan Chen

ABSTRACT Introduction: Improving cardiovascular function is one of the main training goals of many sports. Objective: To understand the characteristics of the cardiovascular response of athletes under different training conditions. Methods: Thirty male basketball students were enrolled. The subjects were divided into A and B groups according to their years of training, with 15 students in each group. Exercise fatigue tests were performed, starting at a low intensity and gradually increasing the load to a relatively high degree of fatigue. Results: The RMSSD value was 42.82±31.41ms in group A and 46.48±35.26ms in group B undera low fatigue state. The LF/HF value of the athletes in group A was 2.86±1.47 and the LF/HF value of the athletes in group B was 2.94±1.68. The RMSSD value was 40.78±31.17ms and 32.37±36.42ms for groups A and B, respectively, undera high fatigue state. Conclusions: Athletes with more years of training can mobilize more cardiac reserves to meet the increase in exercise load in a fatigue state and have better autonomic nervous regulation in the process of reaching a higher degree of fatigue state. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-13
Hua Tian

ABSTRACT Introduction: The main purpose of aerobic exercise is to enhance cardiopulmonary endurance, so it is necessary to build cardiopulmonary endurance response models based on different frequencies of aerobic exercise. Objective: To study the cardiopulmonary endurance response of women to different frequencies of aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty young female desk workers (female teachers and civil servants) who worked out at a fitness club were randomly divided into two groups. Cardiopulmonary function, both before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at different exercise loads, was studied and analyzed. Results: After 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at different exercise loads, all the young women had significantly improved their vital capacity (VC), and their maximum oxygen uptake ability was improved to a certain extent. Compared with the 45-minute aerobic exercise group, the vital capacity (VC)of 90-minute aerobic exercise group was significantly increased (P>0.05). Conclusions: When performed at a consistent frequency level, aerobic exercise with a relatively high exercise load can better develop the body’s respiratory system function. This may be due to deep stimulation of the respiratory system from high-load aerobic exercise, and ultimately to the intensive exercising of lung function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-42
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yanwen Lu ◽  
Dong Liang ◽  
Liu Han ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction: Overtraining in football is caused by an imbalance between body load, stress, and recovery. High-volume non-scientific physical training and continuous high-intensity football matches are often the main reasons for the overtraining of athletes. Objective: This article explores the characteristics of the changes in physical function of football players during a complete training cycle. Methods: We use experimental methods to analyze the changes in the physical load characteristics of football players during high-intensity training. Results: Creatine kinase, urea nitrogen, and oxygen transport indicators did not change significantly during football training. Testosterone and cortisol will gradually increase with an increase of exercise load. Conclusion: In football training, we need to reasonably arrange the total exercise volume, exercise intensity, and exercise interval time of the athletes according to the trainer’s physical adaptability and athletic ability, supplemented with nutrition and enthusiasm recovery measures. These methods can improve or enhance the physical function of football players. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-26
Lulu Gao ◽  
Jian Tian

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise is an important factor in regulating energy balance and body composition. Exercise itself is a kind of body stress. It involves the central nervous system, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, and other systems. Sports have various effects on the hormones in adolescent height development. Objective: This article analyzes the effects of different time and load exercise training on the levels of serum testosterone, free testosterone, and cortisol in young athletes. Methods: The athletes’ blood samples were collected at the quiet time in the morning before each experiment, immediately after exercise, and at three time intervals the next morning. Then blood testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), and corticosteroids (C) were measured. Results: One-time and one-day high-volume training can cause a decrease in serum testosterone and free testosterone levels and an increase in cortisol hormones in young athletes. The testosterone level of young athletes rises immediately after exercise. Conclusion: Hormonal changes after physical exercise provide a scientific basis for athlete exercise load prediction and exercise plan formulation. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Cong Zeng ◽  
Ge Luo ◽  
Shijun Xu ◽  
Yi Li

To analyze the causes of muscle soreness and injury during precompetition training in university sports meet and taking the DOMS mechanism as the main line to find a reasonable way to deal with the muscle pain and prevent the injury, 125 college students participating in stadium games training were randomly selected. The muscle pain and injury during the training were obtained through interviews, mathematical statistics, and literature review. The information of exercise load, pain and injury type, exercise ability, pain degree, and recovery time was comprehensively analyzed to study the mechanism of pain and injury formation. Muscle pain and injury occurred in precompetition training, especially in freshmen. After heavy load, muscle soreness occurred, causing DOMS and developing into muscle injury. Affected by the external climate environment, sudden muscle soreness and injury are a gradual transformation process with DOMS as the boundary, which is the comprehensive result of exercise load, water, energy, and material metabolism; control load intensity, water supplement, and energy and material supplement can effectively prevent the occurrence of DOMS, and timely recovery after DOMS symptoms can effectively avoid the occurrence of sports injury. According to the different intensity of exercise, it is of great significance to clarify the mechanism of DOMS and explore effective prevention methods for physical education and sports training.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
Ruoya Huang ◽  
Stephanie McNesby

In the past 25 years, the number of males who are dissatisfied with their bodies increased threefold. This is prevalent especially in the athletic field, where different physique expectations are closely associated with performance. Heightened focus on dietary rules and fitness level cause males to struggle with body dissatisfaction and shame and increase the risk of them developing eating disorders (ED), some of which are the most fatal mental illnesses. Many disordered eating behaviors stem from negative self-perceptions, which start to develop as early as the beginning of grade school and intensifies during pubertal development. However, most studies that examine this issue either looks at female college athletes who have a heavy exercise load and pressure from society on their physiques or focuses on social factors of peer pressure, family influence, and beauty standard. Therefore, it is imperative to determine whether sports participation is positively correlated with the rapidly growing rate of body image issues and ED symptoms in adolescent boys to help address them promptly and prevent severe and lasting damages. This quantitative case study conducted on male teens at Eastside Catholic High School (ECHS) found positive correlations between aesthetic/strength sports, body image issues, and higher ED risks, suggesting that athletic involvement plays a greater role in a person’s physical perception and mental health than body weight does. The conclusions inform education institutions and guardians of the more effective way to detect male adolescents’ body image issues and eating disorder symptoms, helping to prevent or alleviate mental illnesses.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259856
Hiroshi Tajima ◽  
Hiroo Matsuse ◽  
Ryuki Hashida ◽  
Takeshi Nago ◽  
Masafumi Bekki ◽  

It is well known that prolonged bed rest induces muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, bone loss, a loss of functional capacity, and the development of insulin resistance. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anticipated to be an interventional strategy for disuse due to bed rest. A hybrid training system (HTS), synchronized neuromuscular electrical stimulation for voluntary exercise using an articular motion sensor, may increase the exercise load though bed rest. We assessed oxygen uptake or heart rate during knee bending exercise in the supine position on a bed both simultaneously combined with HTS and without HTS to evaluate exercise intensity on different days in ten healthy subjects (8 men and 2 women) by a randomized controlled crossover trial. The values of relative oxygen uptake during knee bending exercise with HTS were significantly greater than those during knee bending exercise without HTS (7.29 ± 0.91 ml/kg/min vs. 8.29 ± 1.06 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0115). That increment with HTS was a mean of 14.42 ± 13.99%. Metabolic equivalents during knee bending exercise with HTS and without HTS were 2.08 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.30, respectively. The values of heart rate during knee bending exercise with HTS were significantly greater than those during knee bending exercise without HTS (80.82 ± 9.19 bpm vs. 86.36 ± 5.50 bpm; p = 0.0153). HTS could increase exercise load during knee bending exercise which is easy to implement on a bed. HTS might be a useful technique as a countermeasure against the disuse due to bed rest, for example during acute care or the quarantine for infection prophylaxis.

Zhizhong Shang ◽  
Dongliang Li ◽  
Jinlei Chen ◽  
Mingchuan Wang ◽  
Baolin Zhang ◽  

Objective: The actual efficacy of magnesium and its alloy in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) was systematically evaluated to reduce the risk of translation from animal experiments to the clinic.Methods: Databases of PubMed, Ovid-Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM were searched for literature in July 2021. Screening of search results, data extraction, and literature quality evaluation were undertaken independently by two reviewers.Results and discussion: Seven articles were selected for the meta-analysis. The results showed that the mechanical properties of the femoral-tendon graft–tibia complex fixed with magnesium and its alloys were comparable to those fixed with titanium and its alloys, and magnesium and its alloys were superior to titanium and its alloys in promoting new bone formation. In addition, the unique biodegradability made magnesium and its alloys an orthopedic implant with significant therapeutic potential. However, whether the degradation rate of magnesium and its alloy can match the rate of bone-tendon integration, and whether the bioconjugation of bone-tendon after degradation can meet the exercise load still needs to be explored in further detail. Simultaneously, it is necessary for future research to improve and standardize experimental design, result measurement, etc., so as to minimize the risk of transforming animal experimental results into clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 80-87
Wang Youjun

This paper studies the energy consumption and its influencing factors of a set of simplified 24 Style Taijiquan with a time of five minutes. Therefore, this paper studies the scientific adjustment of Taijiquan exercise load in Forest Park, and points out the characteristics and differences of energy consumption among different groups of practitioners. At the same time, this paper studies the characteristics and differences of load intensity of Taijiquan practitioners in different groups and different postures, and establishes the regression equation of simplified 24 Style Taijiquan energy consumption. At the same time, this paper establishes a simplified mass fitness load standard of 24 Style Taijiquan, which provides more theoretical and data support for mass scientific, effective and safe fitness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Panlong Qin ◽  
Wei Feng

In order to monitor the sports load data of athletes in sports training, this paper studies the methods and systems of sports load monitoring and fatigue warning based on neural network technology. In this paper, the neural network parallel optimization algorithm based on big data is used to accurately estimate the motion load and intensity according to the determined motion mode and acceleration data, so as to realize the real-time monitoring of the exercise training. The results show that the value of η is usually small to ensure that the weight correction can truly follow the direction of the gradient descent. In this paper, 176 samples were extracted from the monitoring data collected by the “National Tennis Team Information Platform,” 160 of which were selected as training samples and the other 16 as test samples. Ant colony size M = 20. The minimum value Wmin of the weight interval is −2, and the maximum value Wmax is 2. The maximum number of iterations is set to 200. σ = 1; that is, only one optimal solution is retained. The domain is divided into 60 parts evenly; that is, r = 60. Generally, η can be taken as any number [28] between [10-3, 10], but the value is usually small to ensure that the weight correction can truly follow the direction of the gradient descent. In this paper, the value is 0.003. In the early warning stage of exercise fatigue, reasonable measurement units of exercise fatigue time were divided according to the characteristics of different exercise items. It is proved that the Bayesian classification algorithm can effectively avoid the sports injury caused by overtraining by warning the fatigue and preventing the sports injury caused by overtraining.

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