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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-41
H. A. Jonathan ◽  
I. N. Fitriawati ◽  
I. I. Arief ◽  
M. S. Soenarno ◽  
R. H. Mulyono

Yogurt can be made from homogenized milk, low-fat milk or skimmed milk with the addition of powdered milk. Starter culture commonly used in yogurt is Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus can not survive in environments with high acidity, so probiotics needed. One of the fruits that can be used in the process of making yogurt is red fruit (Pandanus Conoideus L). The purpose of this study was to analyze the physical and organoleptic properties of probiotic yogurt given the addition of red fruit. The observed physical characteristics consist of pH, viscosity, total acid concentration and water activity (aw) and organoleptic arachnids observed consisting of color, flavour, aroma and consistency. This research was using a complete randomized design (RAL). The results showed that the addition of red fruit has a real effect (P<0.05) on pH, viscosity and total acid titrated and organoleptic test shows the addition of red fruit has a noticeable effect on color, flavour, aroma and viscosity in hedonic quality tests, then in hedonic tests affect aroma and flavour. Based on the results of yogurt testing with the addition of 2.5% this is the closest to control and acceptable to Indonesian National Standards (SNI).

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Sharon Sweeney ◽  
Áine Regan ◽  
Claire McKernan ◽  
Tony Benson ◽  
Alison Hanlon ◽  

There has been increased public interest and concerns in issues such as farm animal welfare (FAW) on the island of Ireland, stoked in part by political and governance changes, such as Brexit and COVID-19. Front-of-pack food labelling represents a primary information channel for many people. In advance of considering formalised food labelling schemes, specifically relating to FAW, it is important to ensure an up-to-date understanding of current consumer perceptions of FAW. With this aim, the current study utilised a mixed methodology. Nine focus group discussions (n = 41) and an online survey (n = 972) with food consumers in Ireland and Northern Ireland explored perceptions of FAW. Results suggest that overall perceptions of FAW are high, and consumers perceive FAW to have improved in the last decade. Quantitative (ANOVA) and qualitative results show variations in perception of FAW between sectors. Results from the focus group discussions identified factors underlying consumers’ perception of FAW: the living conditions of the animal, size and intensity of the farm, national standards and schemes, and visibility. Information insufficiencies and knowledge gaps were identified. The findings are discussed in relation to policy implications for the role of public engagement, front-of-pack welfare labelling, and quality assurance schemes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 752
Ziwei Han ◽  
Peiyao Chen ◽  
Meifang Hou ◽  
Qianqian Li ◽  
Guijin Su ◽  

Hydrogels, as an emerging extinguishant, exhibit outstanding performance in forest fire rescues. However, the near-zero freezing point limits their application at low temperatures. Herein, a sensible candidate commercial extinguishant was selected for analysis, and its freezing point was modified based on the evaluation of water absorption rate, agglomeration, viscosity, and water dispersibility. Notably, the introduction of different antifreeze and flame retardant exhibited a significant disparate impact on the viscosity representative factor. Ten orthogonal experiments were performed to optimize the specific formulation. When ethylene glycol, urea and ammonium bicarbonate, and xanthan gum were applied as antifreeze, flame retardant, and thickener, with the addition amounts of 5 mL, 0.08 g and 0.04 g, and 0.12 g, respectively, the hydrogel extinguishant with 1% ratio in 50 mL of ultra-water featured the remarkable performance. Compared with the original extinguishant, the freezing point of the modified sample decreased from −0.3 to −9.2 °C. The sample’s viscosity was improved from 541 to 1938 cP, and the flame retardance time was more than 120 s. The results of corrosion and biotoxicity show that the optimized hydrogel extinguishant satisfies the national standards. This understanding provides a deeper insight into the application of low-temperature extinguishants in forest fires.

Charlotte S Ho ◽  
Darren SJ Ting ◽  
Devina Gogi

Background/aims Chronic ophthalmic conditions, such as glaucoma and dry eye disease, are frequently encountered debilitating eye conditions that can lead to substantial reduction in vision and quality of life. However, there is ongoing evidence to suggest that topical ophthalmic therapy is inappropriately omitted on admission to hospital. The primary aim of this audit was to investigate the trust adherence to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline on the prescribing standard of eye drops during hospital admission. The secondary aim was to raise awareness and ensure successful compliance with national standards to reduce unintentional omission of eye drops on admission and subsequent complications. Method Electronic medical records of all medical and surgical adult inpatients were studied prospectively on two different occasions. The quality of documentation of eye drops in clerking notes, the length of time taken between the admission and prescription of eye drops, and the accuracy of the prescription were examined. Following the initial audit, interventions focusing on clinician education were implemented. This includes highlighting the importance of eye drops in all departmental mandatory introductory sessions and putting up posters on all the wards as prompts. The same data collection method was used in the reaudit. Results In the initial audit, 64 (mean age 81.8±8.9 years) patients with regular prescriptions for eye drops were identified; 38 (59.4%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 20 (31.3%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and six (9.4%) patients had eye drops for both. In the reaudit, 57 (mean age 76.7±15.3 years) patients were identified; 42 (73.7%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 10 (17.5%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and five (8.8%) patients had eye drops for both. Following the intervention, there was a significant improvement in documentation of ocular diagnosis and eye drops on clerking notes from 41% to 65% (P=0.008), and eye drop reconciliation within 24 hours of admission improved from 45% to 75% (P=0.0008). All patients (100%) received the correct eye drop prescription before and after the intervention. Conclusions Education is effective in promoting adherence to national guidelines and reducing the incidence of inappropriate omission of eye drops on admission to hospital.

Significance Once considered the means by which US states could act as ‘laboratories of democracy’ that find new ways to improve governance, the recent construction of federalism as prioritising state autonomy is producing unevenness in democratic practices that is affecting the established rights of individuals. Impacts The erosion of common standards in states’ electoral procedures will further reduce overall trust in the democratic process. Political divisions between state and federal governments will increase during the remainder of the Biden presidency. Emphasising splits with Washington on civil rights issues camouflages state-level economic changes which will also impact voters. Aided by interest groups, states are drafting appeal-proof laws which reduce the ability of courts to enforce national standards.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Sartika Sartika ◽  
Tamrin Tamrin ◽  
Sri Rejeki

ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effect of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour formulation on the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of wet noodles. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) using the formulations of wheat flour, breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour M1 (70:28:2), M2 (70:26:4), M3 (70:24:6), and M4 (70:22:8). The results show that the formulation of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour had a very significant effect on improving the organoleptic characteristics of color, aroma, taste, and texture of wet noodles. The best product based on the organoleptic assessment was found in the M4 formulation (70% wheat flour formulation, 22% breadfruit flour, and 8% green seaweed flour) with assessment scores of color, aroma, taste, and texture, reached 3.81 (like), 2.98 (slightly like), 2.92 (slightly like) and 3.84 (like), respectively. The chemical analysis shows that the best wet noodle product contaiend 57.68% water, 1.23% ash, and 0.09% crude fiber. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained in the M4 treatment, which reached 62.50%. Based on the results of the study, the wet noodle product with the formulation of breadfruit flour and green seaweed flour was preferred by the panelists and met the national standards for ash and water contents.Keywords: wet noodle, fermented cassava flour, breadfruit flourABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau terhadap karakteristik fisikokimia dan organoleptik mie basah. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan menggunakan formulasi tepung terigu, tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau M1 (70:28:2), M2 (70:26:4), M3 (70:24:6), M4 (70:22:8). Hasil penilaian menunjukan bahwa formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan uji organoleptik warna, aroma, rasa dan tekstur mie basah. Berdasarkan penilaian organoleptik terdapat pada formulasi M4 (formulasi tepung terigu 70%, tepung ubi sukun 22%, dan tepung rumput laut hijau 8%) dengan skor penilaian terhadap karakteristik organoleptik warna 3,81 ( suka), aroma 2,98 (agak suka), rasa 2,92 (agak suka) dan tekstur 3,84 (suka). Nilai analisis kimia dari produk mie basah terbaik meliputi : kadar air 57,68%, kadar abu 1,23%, kadar serat kasar 0,09%. Aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi pada perlakuan M4 (terigu 70%: tepung sukun 22% : dan tepung rumput laut 8%) sebesar 62,50%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, produk Mie basah formulasi tepung sukun dan tepung rumput laut hijau dapat diterima (disukai) oleh panelis dan memiliki kadar abu dan kadar air yang telah memenuhi standar SNI.Kata kunci: mie basah, tepung sukun, tepung rumput laut hijau.

e-Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 99-107
Chen Ding ◽  
Ning Li ◽  
Zhikang Chen ◽  
Yufei Zhang

Abstract In this study, kraft lignin and epichlorohydrin (ECH) were used to prepare no-formaldehyde wood adhesives. The lignin was first treated by ball milling, then reacted with glyoxal to produce glyoxalated lignin under alkaline conditions, and then blended with ECH to prepare lignin-based formaldehyde-free adhesive. The influence of the content of ECH on the physicochemical properties of the adhesives was explored, and the possible synthesis mechanism of the ECH-modified glyoxalated lignin adhesives (glyoxalated kraft lignin-epoxy [GKLE]) was investigated. The results show that ECH was beneficial to improving the plywood shear strength and water resistance; the plywood prepared with GKLE-50 adhesive displays comparable water resistance as phenol–formaldehyde resins and its wet shear strength (type I) was 1.05 MPa, exceeding the Chinese National Standards GB/T 9846-2015. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the increase of ECH content promoted the adhesive to penetrate the wood to form glue nails, improving the wet shear strength of the plywood. Chemical analysis indicated that glyoxalation was used to introduce hydroxyethyl groups into the ortho positions of the aromatic rings of lignin, and then the ring-opening reaction between glyoxalated lignin and ECH occurred forming ether bonds. Overall, lignin has displayed great potential in replacing formaldehyde-based adhesives for industrial applications.

2022 ◽  
pp. 243-263
Tracey S. Hodges ◽  
Sharon M. Pratt ◽  
Leslie La Croix ◽  
Sherry Dismuke ◽  
Carol A. Donovan ◽  

To shed some light on how writing methods are currently taught in a variety of programs across the United States and continue examining high-quality writing educators, the present chapter presents five distinct models for teacher preparation. These models are the result of meeting state-level standards; national standards through the International Literacy Association (ILA); and core competencies from research, theory, and practice. The course models represent the Pacific Northwest, Midwest, Southeast, and Northeast, showing diversity across the United States. Specifically in the present chapter, the researchers (1) present effective models of writing instruction; (2) provide examples of integrated approaches to research, theory, and practice for writing instruction; and (3) examine limitations and opportunities within each model. The goal of the present chapter is to outline these models in the hopes that other programs can modify and replicate the models that best fit their unique demographics, needs, and literacy standards.

2022 ◽  
pp. 288-310
Fernando Melero-García

This chapter examines students' perceptions of their online learning experience in a healthcare interpreting course as well as their self-efficacy beliefs. The results suggest that teaching presence is essential in online learning, as students indicated that the feedback provided by the instructor were among the most helpful aspects of the course. Additionally, including activities that required learners to interact and collaborate throughout the semester was an effective way of creating social presence. Students specifically perceived that doing peer-evaluations with a classmate on a weekly basis helped them learn and increased their confidence. Regarding self-efficacy beliefs, by the end of the semester students considered that they can meet the requirements established in the National Standards of Practice for Interpreters in Health Care. Overall, a collaborative online environment was successfully created, and learners had a worthwhile learning experience. This study provides meaningful data that can inform future online teaching practices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 76-87
Marimbun Marimbun ◽  
Rizky Andana Pohan

The implementation of effective guidance and counselling services requires adequate facilities and infrastructure in accordance with national standards in Permendikbud No 111 of 2014 regarding guidance and counselling in secondary education in Indonesia. This study aims to describe the condition of the facilities and infrastructure for guidance and counselling in state secondary school; junior and senior state high school in Indonesia. The method used is the survey model. The research data were collected from 65 State Senior High Schools, 25 State Vocational High Schools and 58 State Junior High Schools spread over 71 districts/cities in 18 provinces in Indonesia. The instrument used a semi-open questionnaire adopted from Permendikbud No. 111 of 2014 regarding guidance and counselling in primary and secondary education. The results of the study showed as many as 4.68% of state senior high schools and 8.77% of state junior high schools did not have a counselling room. A total of 20.31% of state senior high schools, 58.82% of state vocational high schools, and 52.63% of state junior high schools did not have special room for individual counselling. A total of 10.93% of state high schools, 52.94% of state vocational high schools and 21.05% of state junior high schools did not have living room. A total of 39.06% of state senior high schools, 64.70% of state vocational high schools, and 64.91% of state junior high schools did not have group guidance and counselling rooms. A total of 31.25% of state senior high schools, 35.29% of state vocational high schools, and 59.64% of state junior high schools did not have data room. As many as 31.25% of state senior high schools, 82.35% of state vocational high schools, and 73.68% did not have library display room (bibliocounseling). This study revealed that the facilities and infrastructure for guidance and counseling in state secondary schools in Indonesia do not in accordance with the minimum standards issued in Permendikbud No. 111 of 2014. The implementation of effective and efficient guidance and counselling services requires facilities and infrastructure that corresponds with the minimum standards. Based on this study results, it is anticipated the stakeholders of guidance and counselling services, especially in education sections in Indonesia, would pay attention and provide the minimum standard of guidance and counselling facilities and infrastructure.

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