Physical Activity Levels
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2021 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104281
Hamish Reid ◽  
Ashley Jane Ridout ◽  
Simone Annabella Tomaz ◽  
Paul Kelly ◽  
Natasha Jones

IntroductionThe benefits of physical activity for people living with long-term conditions (LTCs) are well established. However, the risks of physical activity are less well documented. The fear of exacerbating symptoms and causing adverse events is a persuasive barrier to physical activity in this population.This work aimed to agree clear statements for use by healthcare professionals about medical risks of physical activity for people living with LTCs through expert consensus. These statements addressed the following questions: (1) Is increasing physical activity safe for people living with one or more LTC? (2) Are the symptoms and clinical syndromes associated with common LTCs aggravated in the short or long term by increasing physical activity levels? (3) What specific risks should healthcare professionals consider when advising symptomatic people with one or more LTCs to increase their physical activity levels?MethodsStatements were developed in a multistage process, guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation tool. A patient and clinician involvement process, a rapid literature review and a steering group workshop informed the development of draft symptom and syndrome-based statements. We then tested and refined the draft statements and supporting evidence using a three-stage modified online Delphi study, incorporating a multidisciplinary expert panel with a broad range of clinical specialties.ResultsTwenty-eight experts completed the Delphi process. All statements achieved consensus with a final agreement between 88.5%–96.5%. Five ‘impact statements’ conclude that (1) for people living with LTCs, the benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks, (2) despite the risks being very low, perceived risk is high, (3) person-centred conversations are essential for addressing perceived risk, (4) everybody has their own starting point and (5) people should stop and seek medical attention if they experience a dramatic increase in symptoms. In addition, eight symptom/syndrome-based statements discuss specific risks for musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, cardiac chest pain, palpitations, dysglycaemia, cognitive impairment and falls and frailty.ConclusionClear, consistent messaging on risk across healthcare will improve people living with LTCs confidence to be physically active. Addressing the fear of adverse events on an individual level will help healthcare professionals affect meaningful behavioural change in day-to-day practice. Evidence does not support routine preparticipation medical clearance for people with stable LTCs if they build up gradually from their current level. The need for medical guidance, as opposed to clearance, should be determined by individuals with specific concerns about active symptoms. As part of a system-wide approach, consistent messaging from healthcare professionals around risk will also help reduce cross-sector barriers to engagement for this population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11270
Giovanni Angelo Navarra ◽  
Ewan Thomas ◽  
Antonino Scardina ◽  
Mohammad Izadi ◽  
Daniele Zangla ◽  

Digital media are widespread among school-age children, and their incorrect use may lead to an increase in sedentary levels and the consequences associated with it. There are still few studies that have investigated whether physical activity levels could be increased through their use. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify whether digital strategies and technologies are capable of increasing the level of physical activity. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The main outcomes evaluated the increase in physical activity levels, the number of steps, and the reduction of sedentary behaviors. Two trained researchers independently assessed eligible studies against eligibility criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The Downs and Black checklist was used to assess the quality of the included studies. A total of 15 studies (1122 children) were included in this systematic review, with a mean age of 8.45 ± 0.70 years. Quality assessment of the studies observed a “moderate quality” of the included records. The results of this systematic review highlight that digital media can be applied as a way to improve the levels of physical activity in children to contrast a sedentary lifestyle. The main limitations of the study are the heterogeneity within the exercise protocols and the paucity of studies involving school-age children. More research is needed to confirm our findings also due to continuing technological progress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ru Li ◽  
Xiao Liang ◽  
Yujuan Zhou ◽  
Zhanbing Ren

Background: The health benefits of physical activity (PA) participation are well-documented. Little was known about the PA levels of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing (TD) peers in inclusive schools. This study aimed to synthesize available studies examining PA levels of children and adolescents with and without ASD and its associated factors that affected their PA participation during inclusive schools applying the social–relational model of disability (SRMD).Methods: Eight databases were searched including CINAHL Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Eric, APA PsycINFO, and Scopus from inception through May 2021 to identify related studies. Two researchers independently screened studies, assessed methodological quality, and summarized relevant data. The McMaster Critical Reviewer Form for quantitative studies was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included articles.Results: A total of seven articles were included in this systematic review. Overall, meta-analysis results indicated that children and adolescents with ASD had a moderately decreased PA levels compared with their TD peers [SMD = −0.585, 95% CI (−0.774, −0.425), p < 0.01]. Individual-, social-, and environmental-level factors that influence PA levels in children and adolescents with ASD were identified from the perspective of SRMD.Conclusion: This review indicates that children and adolescents with ASD have lower PA levels than their TD peers in inclusive schools and multilevel factors affect their PA.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3570
Paulina Górska ◽  
Ilona Górna ◽  
Izabela Miechowicz ◽  
Juliusz Przysławski

Many people’s life situations are changing as a result of restrictions being imposed by national governments to limit the spread of the virus. These may be associated with additional factors (emotional or financial, for example) that influence eating behavior and physical activity levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between a changing life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. An online survey was conducted between 28 April and 16 July 2020 with 921 participants from European countries and countries outside Europe (South and North America, Australia). An analysis of the obtained results showed an unfavorable relationship between a change in life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. This was observed mainly among students who returned to their family homes and respondents whose working hours increased. Students were more likely to snack between meals (51.13%, p < 0.001) and to consume more sweets (45.11%, p < 0.001) and savory snacks (30.83%, p < 0.001). Those whose working hours had increased, consumed morefast foods (13.57%, p < 0.05) during that time. On the other hand, the study results indicated that a change in life situation during the pandemic can also have a positive impact on eating behavior and physical activity. This was exhibited by individuals who transitioned to remote working. An improvement in the regularity of eating (38.86%, p < 0.001) was recorded for this group. The relationship between a change in life situation and eating behavior was further emphasized by the fact that people whose life situation had not changed were more likely to declare no change in the regularity of eating (62.86%, p < 0.001) and snacking (61.71%, p < 0.001). At the same time, they were less likely to exhibit a higher intake of sweets (22.29%, p < 0.01) and salty snacks (13.14%, p < 0.01). The study results indicated that a change in the nutritional situation during the pandemic may have had both negative and positive effects on eating behavior and physical activity. Finding these relationships may help identify groups that are particularly vulnerable to reduced diet quality and reduced levels of physical activity. Considering the immunomodulating effects of diets and the fact that physical activity is essential for maintaining good health, further research in this area is needed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109019812110449
Fiona McHale ◽  
Kwok Ng ◽  
Sarah Taylor ◽  
Enrique Bengoechea ◽  
Catherine Norton ◽  

Background. Low levels of physical activity (PA) in adolescents highlight the necessity for effective intervention. During adolescence, peer relationships can be a fundamental aspect of adopting and maintaining positive health behaviors. Aim. This review aims to determine peer-led strategies that showed promise to improve PA levels of adolescents. It will also identify patterns across these interventions, including training provided and the behavior change techniques (BCTs) employed. Method. Adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Scopus were searched using key concepts of peer, PA and adolescent for articles that examined interventions that had a peer-led component and reported on at least one PA outcome in 12- to 19-year-olds. Following title and abstract screening of 1,509 studies, and full text review stage, 18 progressed to data synthesis. Methodological quality was assessed using an adapted scale. Results. Quality assessment identified 11 studies as high quality. Half of the included studies ( n = 9) reported improved PA outcomes in the school setting. The most prominent behavioral change techniques were social support, information about health consequences, and demonstration of the behavior. Older adolescents leading younger peers and younger adolescents leading those of the same age showed potential. Seldom have older adolescents been targeted. Gender-specific interventions showed the most promise. Conclusion. Peer leadership requires careful planning and in the school setting can be a resourceful way of promoting adolescent PA.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0257320
Peggy Compton ◽  
Krisda H. Chaiyachati ◽  
Tanisha Dicks ◽  
Elina Medvedeva ◽  
Manik Chhabra

Rates of chronic pain and daily opioid use are higher among veterans relative to civilian populations. Increasing physical activity can reduce pain severity and decrease opioid use among patients with chronic pain. Behavioral economic strategies can improve physical activity levels but have been undertested in veterans with chronic pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a financial incentive combined with a loss aversion component—a “regret lottery” in which veterans could win money if they met a set goal or told how much they could have won had they met their goal—would increase physical activity levels among veterans with chronic pain. A 12-week single-blinded randomized controlled trial ( NCT04013529) was designed. Veterans with chronic pain (N = 40) receiving care at a specialty pain clinic were eligible for participation, and were randomly assigned (1:1) to either (a) activity trackers and daily text message reminders to increase physical activity (“control arm”), or (b) the same plus a weekly regret lottery (“intervention arm”). For those in the intervention arm, participants who met their activity goal, had a chance to win a small ($30) or large ($100) gift card incentive; those who did not meet their goals were informed of what they would have won had they met their goal. The primary outcome, physical activity, was measured using self-reported physical activity and step counts using activity trackers. Secondary outcomes included changes in physical function, chronic pain severity, depression and opioid use. The sample was primarily white, male and disabled, with an average age of 57 years. No between-arm differences were noted for physical activity, physical function, chronic pain severity, depression or opioid use. Regret lottery-based approaches may be ineffective at increasing physical activity levels in veterans with chronic pain. Trial Registry: NCT04013529.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3526
Zheng Wang ◽  
Henk Groen ◽  
Astrid E. P. Cantineau ◽  
Tessa M. van Elten ◽  
Matty D. A. Karsten ◽  

To personalize lifestyle advice for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity, detailed information regarding dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity levels, and quality of life (QoL) may be useful. We aimed to investigate in a post-hoc cross-sectional analysis within a large multicenter randomized controlled trial in women with infertility whether there are significant differences in dietary intake (vegetables, fruits, sugary drinks, alcoholic beverages, savory snacks, and sweet snacks); eating behavior (emotional eating, external eating, and restricted eating); physical activity; and QoL between women with PCOS and obesity and non-PCOS obese controls. Participants were asked to complete the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at study entry (PCOS: n = 170; non-PCOS: n = 321, mean BMI: 36). Linear and binary (multinomial) logistic regressions were used, and the analyses were adjusted for age, waist–hip circumference ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). No statistically significant differences in dietary intake or physical activity were observed between the two groups. The overall score of emotional eating was 34.6 ± 11.2 in the PCOS group and 34.1 ± 11.3 in the non-PCOS group (p = 0.11). QoL scores (physical and mental) did not differ between PCOS and non-PCOS women. These findings suggest that infertile women with PCOS and obesity and infertile non-PCOS obese controls do not have different dietary habits and have similar mental and physical QoL.

Ji Young Kim ◽  
Samuel Yoo ◽  
Su Jin Yeon ◽  
Ji Hee Min ◽  
Dong-il Kim ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (10) ◽  
pp. 550-556
Ralph Smith ◽  
Ashley Ridout ◽  
Angus Livingstone ◽  
Nicola Wango ◽  
Yvonne Kenworthy ◽  

Regular physical activity improves glycaemic control in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Motivational interviewing is an effective technique for increasing activity levels. This report evaluates a clinical pathway developed to integrate physical activity motivational interviewing into routine gestational diabetes care. Women attending a single-centre NHS clinic were invited to engage in a physical activity-focused motivational interview. The aerobic physical activity levels of 62 women were evaluated at baseline and at a 2-week telephone follow up, coded into three categories by minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week: red (<30 minutes), amber (30–149 minutes) and green (≥150 minutes). At baseline, 30.6% of participants were coded red, 41.9% amber and 27.4% green. At follow up, 4.8% women coded red, 38.7% amber and 56.5% green, demonstrating a significant association for increased activity levels after motivational interviewing (P<0.001). This clinical pathway provides encouraging results that physical activity increased significantly in the short term.

2021 ◽  
Vol Volume 12 ◽  
pp. 883-896
Barbara A Konkle ◽  
Doris V Quon ◽  
Leslie Raffini ◽  
Michael Recht ◽  
Vlad C Radulescu ◽  

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