dietary habits
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Baig ◽  
T. Mahmood ◽  
N. Munawar ◽  
A. Saman ◽  
A. Razzaq ◽  
...  

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


2024 ◽  
Vol 55 (11) ◽  
pp. 959-966
Author(s):  
M V Groth ◽  
S Fagt ◽  
L Brøndsted

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joshua May ◽  
Victor C C Kumar

How can we make moral progress on factory farming? Part of the answer lies in human moral psychology. Meat consumption remains high, despite increased awareness of its negative impact on animal welfare. Weakness of will is part of the explanation: acceptance of the ethical arguments doesn’t always motivate changes in dietary habits. However, we draw on scientific evidence to argue that many consumers aren’t fully convinced that they morally ought to reduce their meat consumption. We then identify two key psychological mechanisms—motivated reasoning and social proof—that lead people to resist the ethical reasons. Finally, we show how to harness these psychological mechanisms to encourage reductions in meat consumption. A central lesson for moral progress generally is that durable social change requires socially-embedded reasoning.


Author(s):  
Magdalena Potempa-Jeziorowska ◽  
Paweł Jonczyk ◽  
Elżbieta Świętochowska ◽  
Marek Kucharzewski

A high prevalence of obesity among children is influenced by serious implications. Obesity mainly results from behavioral factors, such as improper dietary habits. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary habits of children aged 6–10 (n = 908) attending primary schools in Poland, Europe. The research tool was a questionnaire that was completed by one of the children’s parents. A statistical analysis was made using statistical software. The value of p = 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 74.7% of children surveyed have a normal body mass. As many as 91.7% and 76.6% of children, respectively, eat a first and second breakfast daily. Nearly half of parents (48.9%) state that their child consumes milk or other dairy products daily. A total of 74.3% of children drink water daily. A total of 27.6% eats fish less frequently than once a week. A total of 7.6% of children eat fish several times a week. As many as 20.6% of the respondents state that their child eats brown bread several times a week, whereas 19.9% state that their child never eats brown bread. A total of 55.1% of children eat fruits and/or vegetables daily. A total of 14.1% of children surveyed consume sweets daily. The study revealed a positive correlation between BMI and the frequency of mineral water consumption (p = 0.013) in 9 y.o. girls. It was also revealed that the number of consumed fruit/vegetables increases with the BMI value among 10 y.o. boys (p = 0.044). Conclusions: The dietary habits of the investigated children are still improper. There is a great need for education on this issue, but family involvement is also required.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 372
Author(s):  
Naroa Andueza ◽  
Santiago Navas-Carretero ◽  
Marta Cuervo

Dietary habits, that are formed during childhood and consolidated in adulthood, are known to influence the development of future chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions carried out in recent years focused on improving the quality of the diet of the child population. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed from January 2011 until September 2021. A total of 910 articles were identified and screened based on their title, abstract and full text. Finally, 12 articles were included in the current systematic review. Of those, in six studies the intervention was based on the provision of healthy meals and in the other six studies the intervention focused on modifying the school environment. Six of the studies selected included other components in their intervention such as nutritional education sessions, physical activity and/or families. A wide variety of methods were used for diet assessments, from direct method to questionnaires. The results suggest that interventions that modify the school environment or provide different meals or snacks may be effective in improving children’s dietary patterns, both in the short and long term. Further research is necessary to evaluate the real effectiveness of strategies with multidisciplinary approach (nutritional sessions, physical activity and family’s involvement).


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 412
Author(s):  
Sylwia Bogdan ◽  
Anna Puścion-Jakubik ◽  
Katarzyna Klimiuk ◽  
Katarzyna Socha ◽  
Jan Kochanowicz ◽  
...  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. It is the most common form of dementia among the elderly population. So far, no effective methods of its treatment have been found. Research to better understand the mechanism of pathology may provide new methods for early diagnosis. This, in turn, could enable early intervention that could slow or halt disease progression and improve patients’ quality of life. Therefore, minimally invasive markers, including serum-based markers, are being sought to improve the diagnosis of AD. One of the important markers may be the concentration of UCHL1 and the proteasome in the blood serum. Their concentration can be affected by many factors, including eating habits. This study was conducted in 110 patients with early or moderate AD, with a mean age of 78.0 ± 8.1 years. The patients were under the care of the Podlasie Center of Psychogeriatrics and the Department of Neurology (Medical University of Białystok, Poland). The control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers, matched for gender and age. The concentration of UCHL1 and the 20S proteasome subunit were measured by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). In addition, a nutritional interview was conducted with patients with AD, which assessed the frequency of consumption of 36 groups of products. In the group of patients with AD, compared to the control group, we showed a significantly higher concentration of UCHL1 (56.05 vs. 7.98 ng/mL) and the proteasome (13.02 vs. 5.72 µg/mL). Moreover, we found a low negative correlation between UCHL1 and the proteasome in the control group, and positive in the AD group. The analysis of eating habits showed that the consumption of selected groups of products may affect the concentration of the tested components, and therefore may have a protective effect on AD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 259-272
Author(s):  
Ginette Gladys Doue ◽  
Mariame Cisse ◽  
Rose-Monde Megnanou ◽  
Lessoy Thierry Zoue

Child malnutrition is still a public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, mainly due to poor feeding practice linked to the low nutritional value of the staple foods used for child nutrition. However, the introduction of tigernut, proteins and lipids rich tuber, in the dietary habits of these children could constitute an interesting nutritional alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work was to valorize the tigernut-based porridges for their use as complementary food in the diet of weaning children. To this end, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of four formulations AB1, AB4, RB2 and SB3 were studied. The atadjon formulations, especially AB1, presented the highest density in energy (95.70 Kcal/100g), protein (5.37 %), lipids (3.8 %) and the lowest contents in anti-nutrients with 2.17% in fiber, 36.6% in oxalates, 65.54% in tannin and 0% in phytates, contrary to the rice (RB2) and tigernut (SB3) control porridges. In addition, the atadjon formulations AB4 and AB1 were preferred to the control because of their sweet taste, tigernut flavor, brown color and flowability according to PCA analysis. Thus, this study indicates that these traditionally prepared porridges could be suitable for children receiving an average level of breastfeeding and three meals per day.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Author(s):  
Bogna Gryszczyńska ◽  
Magdalena Budzyń ◽  
Joanna Grupińska ◽  
Magdalena Paulina Kasprzak ◽  
Agnieszka Gryszczyńska

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences, including social isolation, movement restrictions and work instability have altered many people’s nutritional behaviors and daily lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on selected eating habits, physical activity and daily lifestyle changes of Polish adults (n = 145). The self-designed and anonymous questionnaire was available online from the 1 May 2021 to the 15 May 2021. In general, 60% of respondents declared that the COVID-19 pandemic did not affect their dietary habits, whereas 26% of surveyed individuals answered in the affirmative. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on changing dietary habits was differentiated by age (Pearson’s χ2 = 12.604; p = 0.0134). The number of meals consumed by respondents per day differed across gender groups (Pearson’s χ2 = 9.653; df = 4; p = 0.0466). An increase in body weight during the COVID-19 pandemic was reported by 43% of women and 7.6% of surveyed men. Additionally, hybrid working women declared most often an increase in body mass independent of age, education level and living place. Moreover, the majority of respondents who reported the effect of the pandemic on changing dietary habits also declared more frequent sweets consumption. The study revealed that respondents who stated more frequent sweets consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely associated with an increase in body mass (OR = 6.75, 95% CI, 6.75–91.25). No increase in the consumption of vitamin D, C and Mg supplements and pickled products was found.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samuel J. Dicken ◽  
John Joseph Mitchell ◽  
Jessica Newberry Le Vay ◽  
Emma Beard ◽  
Dimitra Kale ◽  
...  

COVID-19 pandemic restrictions impacted dietary habits during the initial months of the pandemic, but long-term effects are unclear. In this longitudinal study, self-selected UK adults (n = 1,733, 71.1% female, 95.7% white ethnicity) completed three online surveys (May–June, August–September, and November–December 2020, with a retrospective pre-pandemic component in the baseline survey), self-reporting sociodemographics, lifestyle, and behaviours, including high fat, salt, and sugar (HFSS) snacks, HFSS meals, and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Monthly HFSS snacks portion intake increased from pre-pandemic levels (48.3) in May–June (57.6, p < 0.001), decreased in August–September (43.7, p < 0.001), before increasing back to pre-pandemic levels in November–December (49.2, p < 0.001). A total of 48.5% self-reported increased [25.9 (95% confidence interval: 24.1, 27.8)] and 47.7% self-reported decreased [24.1 (22.4, 26.0)] monthly HFSS snacks portion intakes in November–December compared with pre-pandemic levels. Monthly HFSS meals portion intake decreased from pre-pandemic levels (7.1) in May–June (5.9, p < 0.001), was maintained in August–September (5.9, p = 0.897), and then increased again in November–December (6.6, p < 0.001) to intakes that remained lower than pre-pandemic levels (p = 0.007). A total of 35.2% self-reported increased [4.8 (4.3, 5.3)] and 44.5% self-reported decreased [5.1 (4.6, 5.6)] monthly HFSS meals portion intakes in November–December compared with pre-pandemic levels. The proportion meeting FV intake recommendations was stable from pre-pandemic through to August–September (70%), but decreased in November–December 2020 (67%, p = 0.034). Increased monthly HFSS snacks intake was associated with female gender, lower quality of life, and – in a time - varying manner – older age and higher HFSS meals intake. Increased monthly HFSS meals intake was associated with female gender, living with adults only, and higher HFSS snacks intake. Reduced FV intake was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and lower physical activity. These results suggest large interindividual variability in dietary change during the first year of the pandemic, with important public health implications in individuals experiencing persistent increases in unhealthy diet choices, associated with BMI, gender, quality of life, living conditions, physical activity, and other dietary behaviours.


Author(s):  
Ameera Ibrahim Amer ◽  
Kholoud Saeed Almohammadi ◽  
Omar Sami Al-Majed ◽  
Sultan Hasan Al Harbi ◽  
Rahmah Mutlaq Aljohani ◽  
...  

Early childhood caries is a common condition that affects children and young infants. In addition to the effect of the condition on the child's oral health, it has been furtherly shown that many systemic consequences are usually associated. Therefore, it has been reported that these conditions can significantly impair the quality of life of corresponding families based on economic and health-related burdens. Affected children usually present with variable degrees of the condition, and some complications might be associated. Many risk factors have been reported in the literature for developing the condition in children. These include the presence of certain bacterial pathogens (especially through vertical transmission), dietary habits, and poor oral hygiene. Evidence indicates that these risk factors significantly contribute to the development of early childhood caries and the importance of the child's socioeconomic status and his caregivers. Targeting these factors would significantly reduce the risk of developing the condition, in addition to fluoridation as suggested by various relevant investigations.


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