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Julio Cesar da Costa ◽  
Paulo Henrique Borges ◽  
Luiz Fernando Ramos-Silva ◽  
Vinicius Muller Reis Weber ◽  
Alexandre Moreira ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-176
Yosuke Shibata ◽  
Yasunari Kurita ◽  
Takaaki Hanada ◽  
Hirofumi Yamashita ◽  
Toshiki Ashizawa ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Thomas G. Di Virgilio ◽  
Magdalena Ietswaart ◽  
Ragul Selvamoorthy ◽  
Angus M. Hunter

Abstract Background The suitability of corticomotor inhibition and corticospinal excitability to measure brain health outcomes and recovery of sport-related head impact (concussion and subconcussion) depends on good inter-day reliability, which is evaluated in this study. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reliability in soccer players is assessed by comparing soccer players, for whom reliability on this measure may be reduced due to exposure to head impacts, to generally active individuals not engaged in contact sport. Methods TMS-derived corticomotor inhibition and corticospinal excitability were recorded from the rectus femoris muscle during two testing sessions, spaced 1–2 weeks apart in 19 soccer players (SOC—age 22 ± 3 years) and 20 generally active (CON—age 24 ± 4 years) healthy volunteers. Inter-day reliability between the two time points was quantified by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Intra-group reliability and group differences on actual measurement values were also explored. Results Good inter-day reliability was evident for corticomotor inhibition (ICCSOC = 0.61; ICCCON = 0.70) and corticospinal excitability (ICCSOC = 0.59; ICCCON = 0.70) in both generally active individuals and soccer players routinely exposed to sport-related head impacts. Corticomotor inhibition showed lower coefficients of variation than excitability for both groups (InhibSOC = 15.2%; InhibCON = 9.7%; ExcitabSOC = 41.6%; ExcitabCON = 39.5%). No group differences between soccer players and generally active individuals were found on the corticomotor inhibition value (p > 0.05), but levels of corticospinal excitability were significantly lower in soccer players (45.1 ± 20.8 vs 85.4 ± 6.2%Mmax, p < 0.0001). Corticomotor inhibition also showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87). Conclusions Corticomotor inhibition and corticospinal excitability are stable and maintain good degrees of reliability when assessed over different days in soccer players, despite their routine exposure to head impacts. However, based on intra-group reliability and group differences of the levels of excitability, we conclude that corticomotor inhibition is best suited for the evaluation of neuromuscular alterations associated with head impacts in contact sports.

Nallely Castillo-Jiménez ◽  
Jeanette M. López-Walle ◽  
Inés Tomás ◽  
José Tristán ◽  
Joan L. Duda ◽  

Based on the conceptual model of multidimensional and hierarchical motivational climate the objective of this study was to test two models. One model (M1) of total mediation, testing the mediating mechanisms that explain why the motivational climate affects intention of continuity or dropout. Specifically, we test the mediating role of satisfaction/frustration of basic psychological needs and self-determined motivation, in the relationship between the players’ perception of the empowering and disempowering climate created by the coach, and the intention of young soccer players to continue/dropout the sport practice. The second model (M2) of partial mediation, contributes to knowing the mechanisms that link the antecedent variables included in the model (perceived empowering and disempowering motivational climate) and the outcomes (intention of continuity or dropout in sport). A total of 381 young male soccer players between 12 and 14 years of age (M = 12.41, SD = 0.89), completed a questionnaire package tapping into the variables of interest: players’ perception of the motivational climate created by the coach (empowering and disempowering), satisfaction/thwarting of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and the intention to continue/dropout sports participation. The hypothesized model was tested using a structural equation model technique with latent variables. The results of the partial mediation model were satisfactory (χ2= 120.92; df = 68; RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.968; TLI = 0.957) and showed that need satisfaction and self-determined motivation partially mediated the relationship between the perception of the empowering climate and the intention to continue. Moreover, need satisfaction showed a positive and significant relationship with the intention to continue sports participation. Additionally, need thwarting and self-determined motivation totally mediated the relationship between the perception of the disempowering climate and the intention to dropout. Furthermore, needs thwarting was positively and significantly related to the intention to dropout of sports participation. Findings point to the importance of fostering empowering climates and preventing the creation of disempowering climates in the grassroots football.

Anthony Weldon ◽  
Sing T Wong ◽  
Nuno Mateus ◽  
Michael J Duncan ◽  
Neil D Clarke ◽  

Strength and conditioning (S&C) is implemented across various sports and levels, but there is limited understanding of the personnel responsible for this, including their S&C practices and perspectives. Whereas recent evidence has shown that coaches and players are often tasked with the responsibility. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate: 1) the personnel responsible for delivering S&C across different levels of soccer, 2) the practices and perspectives of soccer coaches and players, and 3) to ascertain whether the practices employed align with contemporary evidence and guidelines. Forty-two soccer coaches and 30 soccer players completed an online survey with six sections: (a) informed consent, (b) background information, (c) education, qualifications, and prescription, (d) views on S&C, (e) exercise selection and preferences, and (f) issues and improvements. Frequency analysis was used to report responses to fixed-response questions and thematic analysis for open-ended questions. Most respondents reported S&C to be ‘important’ to ‘very important’ for all soccer, physical fitness, and injury parameters, with perspectives being predominantly aligned with S&C guidelines and research in soccer. Although S&C coaches were mostly responsible for delivering S&C sessions, over 60% of respondents disclosed S&C sessions were delivered independently or by support staff. This is problematic given only four coaches held S&C qualifications, and issues and improvements were mostly regarding a lack of S&C expertise and education. This study provides valuable information for S&C and soccer organizations. Particularly regarding the additional support required to ensure those responsible for delivering S&C in soccer have the appropriate knowledge and qualifications.

Hamza Marzouki ◽  
Ibrahim Ouergui ◽  
Bilel Cherni ◽  
Karim Ben Ayed ◽  
Ezdine Bouhlel

This study compared the effects of different sprint ball-based training programs on fitness-related performances in youth soccer players. Forty male players (age: 15.2 ± 0.6 yrs) participated in a short-term (8 weeks) randomized parallel fully controlled training study, with pre-to-post measurements. Players were randomly assigned to 3 sprint ball-based training groups: training with combined sprint (performing linear and change of direction sprints; CST), or using linear sprint (LST), or performing sprint with change of direction (CODT) and to a control group (CONT). Pre- and post-training players completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (10 and 20 m, and flying 10 m), 505 test (COD), 15 m test with ball (CODB), countermovement jump test (CMJ test) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). All physical performance’ variables improved after the training intervention (all p < 0.05; ES ≥ 0.2). No main effect of groups was observed in linear sprinting, CMJ and VO2max (p > 0.05; ES < 0.2). A training group main effect was found (p < 0.0001; ES = 0.50) for COD with CODT induced better performance than LST and CONT (all p <0.0001; ES > 0.8). Also, a training group main effect (p = 0.009; ES = 0.35) was found for CODB with CODT elicited better performance than LST and CONT (all p = 0.001; ES > 0.80). Our findings suggest that ball-based training programs were more effective to improve fitness levels in youth players during the in-season period and that CODT modality was more effective to improve COD and CODB performances.

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