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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Djordje Slijepcevic ◽  
Fabian Horst ◽  
Sebastian Lapuschkin ◽  
Brian Horsak ◽  
Anna-Maria Raberger ◽  
...  

Machine Learning (ML) is increasingly used to support decision-making in the healthcare sector. While ML approaches provide promising results with regard to their classification performance, most share a central limitation, their black-box character. This article investigates the usefulness of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods to increase transparency in automated clinical gait classification based on time series. For this purpose, predictions of state-of-the-art classification methods are explained with a XAI method called Layer-wise Relevance Propagation (LRP). Our main contribution is an approach that explains class-specific characteristics learned by ML models that are trained for gait classification. We investigate several gait classification tasks and employ different classification methods, i.e., Convolutional Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Multi-layer Perceptron. We propose to evaluate the obtained explanations with two complementary approaches: a statistical analysis of the underlying data using Statistical Parametric Mapping and a qualitative evaluation by two clinical experts. A gait dataset comprising ground reaction force measurements from 132 patients with different lower-body gait disorders and 62 healthy controls is utilized. Our experiments show that explanations obtained by LRP exhibit promising statistical properties concerning inter-class discriminativity and are also in line with clinically relevant biomechanical gait characteristics.


Author(s):  
Yan Xiang ◽  
Zhengtao Yu ◽  
Junjun Guo ◽  
Yuxin Huang ◽  
Yantuan Xian

Opinion target classification of microblog comments is one of the most important tasks for public opinion analysis about an event. Due to the high cost of manual labeling, opinion target classification is generally considered as a weak-supervised task. This article attempts to address the opinion target classification of microblog comments through an event graph convolution network (EventGCN) in a weak-supervised manner. Specifically, we take microblog contents and comments as document nodes, and construct an event graph with three typical relationships of event microblogs, including the co-occurrence relationship of event keywords extracted from microblogs, the reply relationship of comments, and the document similarity. Finally, under the supervision of a small number of labels, both word features and comment features can be represented well to complete the classification. The experimental results on two event microblog datasets show that EventGCN can significantly improve the classification performance compared with other baseline models.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Abdelrahman Elkanishy ◽  
Paul M. Furth ◽  
Derrick T. Rivera ◽  
Ahameed A. Badawy

Over the past decade, the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices increased tremendously. In particular, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) expanded dramatically. Resource restrictions on IoT devices and the insufficiency of software security solutions raise the need for smart Hardware-Assisted Security (HAS) solutions. These solutions target one or more of the three C’s of IoT devices: Communication, Control, and Computation. Communication is an essential technology in the development of IoT. Bluetooth is a widely-used wireless communication protocol in small portable devices due to its low energy consumption and high transfer rates. In this work, we propose a supervisory framework to monitor and verify the operation of a Bluetooth system-on-chip (SoC) in real-time. To verify the operation of the Bluetooth SoC, we classify its transmission state in real-time to ensure a secure connection. Our overall classification accuracy is measured as 98.7%. We study both power supply current (IVDD) and RF domains to maximize the classification performance and minimize the overhead of our proposed supervisory system.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maede Maftouni ◽  
Bo Shen ◽  
Andrew Chung Chee Law ◽  
Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi ◽  
Zhenyu Kong

<p>The global extent of COVID-19 mutations and the consequent depletion of hospital resources highlighted the necessity of effective computer-assisted medical diagnosis. COVID-19 detection mediated by deep learning models can help diagnose this highly contagious disease and lower infectivity and mortality rates. Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging modality for building automatic COVID-19 screening and diagnosis models. It is well-known that the training set size significantly impacts the performance and generalization of deep learning models. However, accessing a large dataset of CT scan images from an emerging disease like COVID-19 is challenging. Therefore, data efficiency becomes a significant factor in choosing a learning model. To this end, we present a multi-task learning approach, namely, a mask-guided attention (MGA) classifier, to improve the generalization and data efficiency of COVID-19 classification on lung CT scan images.</p><p>The novelty of this method is compensating for the scarcity of data by employing more supervision with lesion masks, increasing the sensitivity of the model to COVID-19 manifestations, and helping both generalization and classification performance. Our proposed model achieves better overall performance than the single-task baseline and state-of-the-art models, as measured by various popular metrics. In our experiment with different percentages of data from our curated dataset, the classification performance gain from this multi-task learning approach is more significant for the smaller training sizes. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrate that our method enhances the focus on the lesions, as witnessed by both</p><p>attention and attribution maps, resulting in a more interpretable model.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maede Maftouni ◽  
Bo Shen ◽  
Andrew Chung Chee Law ◽  
Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi ◽  
Zhenyu Kong

<p>The global extent of COVID-19 mutations and the consequent depletion of hospital resources highlighted the necessity of effective computer-assisted medical diagnosis. COVID-19 detection mediated by deep learning models can help diagnose this highly contagious disease and lower infectivity and mortality rates. Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging modality for building automatic COVID-19 screening and diagnosis models. It is well-known that the training set size significantly impacts the performance and generalization of deep learning models. However, accessing a large dataset of CT scan images from an emerging disease like COVID-19 is challenging. Therefore, data efficiency becomes a significant factor in choosing a learning model. To this end, we present a multi-task learning approach, namely, a mask-guided attention (MGA) classifier, to improve the generalization and data efficiency of COVID-19 classification on lung CT scan images.</p><p>The novelty of this method is compensating for the scarcity of data by employing more supervision with lesion masks, increasing the sensitivity of the model to COVID-19 manifestations, and helping both generalization and classification performance. Our proposed model achieves better overall performance than the single-task baseline and state-of-the-art models, as measured by various popular metrics. In our experiment with different percentages of data from our curated dataset, the classification performance gain from this multi-task learning approach is more significant for the smaller training sizes. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrate that our method enhances the focus on the lesions, as witnessed by both</p><p>attention and attribution maps, resulting in a more interpretable model.</p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Liu ◽  
Shimin Wang ◽  
Hu Chen ◽  
Yunsong Liu

Abstract Background Recently, there has been considerable innovation in artificial intelligence (AI) for healthcare. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) show excellent object detection and classification performance. This study assessed the accuracy of an artificial intelligence (AI) application for the detection of marginal bone loss on periapical radiographs. Methods A Faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) was trained. Overall, 1670 periapical radiographic images were divided into training (n = 1370), validation (n = 150), and test (n = 150) datasets. The system was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, the mistake diagnostic rate, the omission diagnostic rate, and the positive predictive value. Kappa (κ) statistics were compared between the system and dental clinicians. Results Evaluation metrics of AI system is equal to resident dentist. The agreement between the AI system and expert is moderate to substantial (κ = 0.547 and 0.568 for bone loss sites and bone loss implants, respectively) for detecting marginal bone loss around dental implants. Conclusions This AI system based on Faster R-CNN analysis of periapical radiographs is a highly promising auxiliary diagnostic tool for peri-implant bone loss detection.


Author(s):  
K. S. Archana ◽  
S. Srinivasan ◽  
S. Prasanna Bharathi ◽  
R. Balamurugan ◽  
T. N. Prabakar ◽  
...  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 633
Author(s):  
Lukáš Picek ◽  
Milan Šulc ◽  
Jiří Matas ◽  
Jacob Heilmann-Clausen ◽  
Thomas S. Jeppesen ◽  
...  

The article presents an AI-based fungi species recognition system for a citizen-science community. The system’s real-time identification too — FungiVision — with a mobile application front-end, led to increased public interest in fungi, quadrupling the number of citizens collecting data. FungiVision, deployed with a human-in-the-loop, reaches nearly 93% accuracy. Using the collected data, we developed a novel fine-grained classification dataset — Danish Fungi 2020 (DF20) — with several unique characteristics: species-level labels, a small number of errors, and rich observation metadata. The dataset enables the testing of the ability to improve classification using metadata, e.g., time, location, habitat and substrate, facilitates classifier calibration testing and finally allows the study of the impact of the device settings on the classification performance. The continual flow of labelled data supports improvements of the online recognition system. Finally, we present a novel method for the fungi recognition service, based on a Vision Transformer architecture. Trained on DF20 and exploiting available metadata, it achieves a recognition error that is 46.75% lower than the current system. By providing a stream of labeled data in one direction, and an accuracy increase in the other, the collaboration creates a virtuous cycle helping both communities.


Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Author(s):  
Yuan Bao ◽  
Zhaobin Liu ◽  
Zhongxuan Luo ◽  
Sibo Yang

In this paper, a novel smooth group L1/2 (SGL1/2) regularization method is proposed for pruning hidden nodes of the fully connected layer in convolution neural networks. Usually, the selection of nodes and weights is based on experience, and the convolution filter is symmetric in the convolution neural network. The main contribution of SGL1/2 is to try to approximate the weights to 0 at the group level. Therefore, we will be able to prune the hidden node if the corresponding weights are all close to 0. Furthermore, the feasibility analysis of this new method is carried out under some reasonable assumptions due to the smooth function. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the SGL1/2 method with respect to sparsity, without damaging the classification performance.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261659
Author(s):  
Friska Natalia ◽  
Julio Christian Young ◽  
Nunik Afriliana ◽  
Hira Meidia ◽  
Reyhan Eddy Yunus ◽  
...  

Abnormalities and defects that can cause lumbar spinal stenosis often occur in the Intervertebral Disc (IVD) of the patient’s lumbar spine. Their automatic detection and classification require an application of an image analysis algorithm on suitable images, such as mid-sagittal images or traverse mid-height intervertebral disc slices, as inputs. Hence the process of selecting and separating these images from other medical images in the patient’s set of scans is necessary. However, the technological progress in making this process automated is still lagging behind other areas in medical image classification research. In this paper, we report the result of our investigation on the suitability and performance of different approaches of machine learning to automatically select the best traverse plane that cuts closest to the half-height of an IVD from a database of lumbar spine MRI images. This study considers images features extracted using eleven different pre-trained Deep Convolution Neural Network (DCNN) models. We investigate the effectiveness of three dimensionality-reduction techniques and three feature-selection techniques on the classification performance. We also investigate the performance of five different Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and three Fully Connected (FC) neural network learning optimizers which are used to train an image classifier with hyperparameter optimization using a wide range of hyperparameter options and values. The different combinations of methods are tested on a publicly available lumbar spine MRI dataset consisting of MRI studies of 515 patients with symptomatic back pain. Our experiment shows that applying the Support Vector Machine algorithm with a short Gaussian kernel on full-length image features extracted using a pre-trained DenseNet201 model is the best approach to use. This approach gives the minimum per-class classification performance of around 0.88 when measured using the precision and recall metrics. The median performance measured using the precision metric ranges from 0.95 to 0.99 whereas that using the recall metric ranges from 0.93 to 1.0. When only considering the L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1 classes, the minimum F1-Scores range between 0.93 to 0.95, whereas the median F1-Scores range between 0.97 to 0.99.


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