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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Author(s):  
Anders Krifors ◽  
Måns Ullberg ◽  
Markus Castegren ◽  
Johan Petersson ◽  
Ernesto Sparrelid ◽  
...  

The T2Candida magnetic resonance assay is a direct-from-blood pathogen detection assay that delivers a result within 3–5 h, targeting the most clinically relevant Candida species. Between February 2019 and March 2021, the study included consecutive patients aged >18 years admitted to an intensive care unit or surgical high-dependency unit due to gastrointestinal surgery or necrotizing pancreatitis and from whom diagnostic blood cultures were obtained. Blood samples were tested in parallel with T2Candida and 1,3-β-D-glucan. Of 134 evaluable patients, 13 (10%) were classified as having proven intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) according to the EORTC/MSG criteria. Two of the thirteen patients (15%) had concurrent candidemia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, respectively, were 46%, 97%, 61%, and 94% for T2Candida and 85%, 83%, 36%, and 98% for 1,3-β-D-glucan. All positive T2Candida results were consistent with the culture results at the species level, except for one case of dual infection. The performance of T2Candida was comparable with that of 1,3-β-D-glucan for candidemic IAC but had a lower sensitivity for non-candidemic IAC (36% vs. 82%). In conclusion, T2Candida may be a valuable complement to 1,3-β-D-glucan in the clinical management of high-risk surgical patients because of its rapid results and ease of use.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Liu ◽  
Shimin Wang ◽  
Hu Chen ◽  
Yunsong Liu

Abstract Background Recently, there has been considerable innovation in artificial intelligence (AI) for healthcare. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) show excellent object detection and classification performance. This study assessed the accuracy of an artificial intelligence (AI) application for the detection of marginal bone loss on periapical radiographs. Methods A Faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) was trained. Overall, 1670 periapical radiographic images were divided into training (n = 1370), validation (n = 150), and test (n = 150) datasets. The system was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, the mistake diagnostic rate, the omission diagnostic rate, and the positive predictive value. Kappa (κ) statistics were compared between the system and dental clinicians. Results Evaluation metrics of AI system is equal to resident dentist. The agreement between the AI system and expert is moderate to substantial (κ = 0.547 and 0.568 for bone loss sites and bone loss implants, respectively) for detecting marginal bone loss around dental implants. Conclusions This AI system based on Faster R-CNN analysis of periapical radiographs is a highly promising auxiliary diagnostic tool for peri-implant bone loss detection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bachar Alabdullah ◽  
Amir Hadji-Ashrafy

Abstract Background A number of biomarkers have the potential of differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract, however, a standardised panel for that purpose does not exist yet. We aimed to identify the smallest panel that is most sensitive and specific at differentiating between primary lung tumours and secondary lung tumours from the gastrointestinal tract. Methods A total of 170 samples were collected, including 140 primary and 30 non-primary lung tumours and staining for CK7, Napsin-A, TTF1, CK20, CDX2, and SATB2 was performed via tissue microarray. The data was then analysed using univariate regression models and a combination of multivariate regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Univariate regression models confirmed the 6 biomarkers’ ability to independently predict the primary outcome (p < 0.001). Multivariate models of 2-biomarker combinations identified 11 combinations with statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) (p < 0.05), of which TTF1/CDX2 had the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.983, 0.960–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 75.7, 100, 100, and 37.5% respectively. Multivariate models of 3-biomarker combinations identified 4 combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05), of which CK7/CK20/SATB2 had the highest AUC (0.965, 0.930–1.000 95% CI). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 85.1, 100, 100, and 41.7% respectively. Multivariate models of 4-biomarker combinations did not identify any combinations with statistically significant ORs (p < 0.05). Conclusions The analysis identified the combination of CK7/CK20/SATB2 to be the smallest panel with the highest sensitivity (85.1%) and specificity (100%) for predicting tumour origin with an ROC AUC of 0.965 (p < 0.001; SE: 0.018, 0.930–1.000 95% CI).


Author(s):  
Yingchun Liu ◽  
Lin Chen ◽  
Jia Zhan ◽  
Xuehong Diao ◽  
Yun Pang ◽  
...  

Objective: To explore inter-observer agreement on the evaluation of automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) for breast masses. Methods: A total of 846 breast masses in 630 patients underwent ABVS examinations. The imaging data were independently interpreted by senior and junior radiologists regarding the mass size ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm, [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm and total). We assessed inter-observer agreement of BI-RADS lexicons, unique descriptors of ABVS coronal planes. Using BI-RADS 3 or 4a as a cutoff value, the diagnostic performances for 331 masses with pathological results in 253 patients were assessed. Results: The overall agreements were substantial for BI-RADS lexicons ([Formula: see text]–0.779) and the characteristics on the coronal plane of ABVS ([Formula: see text]), except for associated features ([Formula: see text]). However, the overall agreement was moderate for orientation ([Formula: see text]) for the masses [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm. The agreements were substantial to be perfect for categories 2, 3, 4, 5 and overall ([Formula: see text]–0.918). However, the agreements were moderate to substantial for categories 4a ([Formula: see text]), 4b ([Formula: see text]), and 4c ([Formula: see text]), except for category 4b of the masses [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]cm ([Formula: see text]). Moreover, for radiologists 1 and 2, there were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values with BI-RADS 3 or 4a as a cutoff value ([Formula: see text] for all). Conclusion: ABVS is a reliable imaging modality for the assessment of breast masses with good inter-observer agreement.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Henry Chen ◽  
Xiao Chun Ling ◽  
Da-Wen Lu ◽  
Lan-Hsing Chuang ◽  
Wei-Wen Su ◽  
...  

Abstract The risks of misdiagnosing a healthy individual as glaucomatous or vice versa may be high in a population with a large majority of highly myopic individuals, due to considerable morphologic variability in high myopic fundus. This study aims to compare the diagnostic ability of the regular and long axial length databases in the RS-3000 Advance SD-OCT (Nidek) device to correctly diagnose glaucoma with high myopia. Patients with high myopia (axial length ≥ 26.0 mm) in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan between 2015 and 2020 were included. Glaucoma was diagnosed based on glaucomatous discs, visual field defects and corresponding retinal nerve fiber layer defects. The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy and likelihood ratios of diagnosing glaucoma via mGCC thickness in both superior/inferior and GChart mapping using the regular and long axial length normative databases. The specificity and diagnostic accuracy of mGCC thickness for distinguishing glaucomatous eyes from nonglaucomatous eyes among highly myopic eyes were significantly improved using the long axial length database (p=0.046). There were also significant proportion changes in S/I mapping as well as GChart mapping (37.3% and 48.0%, respectively; p<0.01) from abnormal to normal in the myopic normal eye group when using the long axial length normative database. The study revealed that clinicians could utilize a long axial length database to effectively decrease the number of false-positive diagnoses or to correctly identify highly myopic normal eyes misdiagnosed as glaucomatous eyes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shikha Rani ◽  
Alka Sehgal ◽  
Jasbinder Kaur ◽  
Dilpreet Kaur Pandher ◽  
RPS Punia

Abstract Introduction: Ovarian cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This is due to the nonspecific symptoms and no effective screening methods. Currently CA 125 is used as a tumor biomarker for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but it has its own limitations. So, there is need for other tumor biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. To determine the diagnostic test characteristics of plasma osteopontin (OPN) in detecting ovarian malignancy and comparing its performance with carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA 125). Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation. Women with adnexal mass detected by clinical or radiological examination were enrolled as suspected cases. Women who presented with other gynecological conditions were enrolled as controls. OPN and CA 125 levels were measured in all enrolled subjects. Results: Among 106 women enrolled, 26 were ovarian cancer, 31 had benign ovarian masses and 49 were controls. Median plasma CA 125 levels were higher in subjects with ovarian cancer (298 U/ml; IQR 84-1082 U/ml vs. 37.5U/ml; IQR 17.6-82.9U/ml; P<0.001).CA 125 sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 88.5%, 61.3%,2.10 and 0.19 respectively. Median plasma OPN levels were higher in subjects with ovarian cancer (63.1 ng/ml; IQR 39.3-137 ng/ml vs. 27ng/ml; IQR 20-52ng/ml; P=0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of OPN were 50%,87%,2.58 and 0.62, respectively. Conclusion: OPN levels were higher in ovarian cancer than in the benign ovarian mass and had better specificity than CA125. OPN can better differentiate between benign and malignant ovarian mass as compared to CA125.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Danyan Li ◽  
Xiaowei Han ◽  
Jie Gao ◽  
Qing Zhang ◽  
Haibo Yang ◽  
...  

Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in the current clinical setting. However, the performance of mpMRI usually varies based on the experience of the radiologists at different levels; thus, the demand for MRI interpretation warrants further analysis. In this study, we developed a deep learning (DL) model to improve PCa diagnostic ability using mpMRI and whole-mount histopathology data.Methods: A total of 739 patients, including 466 with PCa and 273 without PCa, were enrolled from January 2017 to December 2019. The mpMRI (T2 weighted imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, and apparent diffusion coefficient sequences) data were randomly divided into training (n = 659) and validation datasets (n = 80). According to the whole-mount histopathology, a DL model, including independent segmentation and classification networks, was developed to extract the gland and PCa area for PCa diagnosis. The area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the performance of the prostate classification networks. The proposed DL model was subsequently used in clinical practice (independent test dataset; n = 200), and the PCa detective/diagnostic performance between the DL model and different level radiologists was evaluated based on the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy.Results: The AUC of the prostate classification network was 0.871 in the validation dataset, and it reached 0.797 using the DL model in the test dataset. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the DL model for diagnosing PCa in the test dataset were 0.710, 0.690, 0.696, and 0.700, respectively. For the junior radiologist without and with DL model assistance, these values were 0.590, 0.700, 0.663, and 0.645 versus 0.790, 0.720, 0.738, and 0.755, respectively. For the senior radiologist, the values were 0.690, 0.770, 0.750, and 0.730 vs. 0.810, 0.840, 0.835, and 0.825, respectively. The diagnosis made with DL model assistance for radiologists were significantly higher than those without assistance (P &lt; 0.05).Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of DL model is higher than that of junior radiologists and can improve PCa diagnostic accuracy in both junior and senior radiologists.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0256194
Author(s):  
Shengkun Peng ◽  
Lingai Pan ◽  
Yang Guo ◽  
Bo Gong ◽  
Xiaobo Huang ◽  
...  

Objectives COVID-19 and Non-Covid-19 (NC) Pneumonia encountered high CT imaging overlaps during pandemic. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of image-based quantitative CT features in discriminating COVID-19 from NC Pneumonia. Materials and methods 145 patients with highly suspected COVID-19 were retrospectively enrolled from four centers in Sichuan Province during January 23 to March 23, 2020. 88 cases were confirmed as COVID-19, and 57 patients were NC. The dataset was randomly divided by 3:2 into training and testing sets. The quantitative CT radiomics features were extracted and screened sequentially by correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression (LR) and backward stepwise LR with minimum AIC methods. The selected features were used to construct the LR model for differentiating COVID-19 from NC. Meanwhile, the differentiation performance of traditional quantitative CT features such as lesion volume ratio, ground glass opacity (GGO) or consolidation volume ratio were also considered and compared with Radiomics-based method. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were conducted to evaluate the predicting performance. Results Compared with traditional CT quantitative features, radiomics features performed best with the highest Area Under Curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the training (0.994, 0.942, 1.0 and 0.965) and testing sets (0.977, 0.944, 0.870, 0.915) (Delong test, P < 0.001). Among CT volume-ratio based models using lesion or GGO component ratio, the model combining CT lesion score and component ratio performed better than others, with the AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.84, 0.692, 0.853, 0.756 in the training set and 0.779, 0.667, 0.826, 0.729 in the testing set. The significant difference of the most selected wavelet transformed radiomics features between COVID-19 and NC might well reflect the CT signs. Conclusions The differentiation between COVID-19 and NC could be well improved by using radiomics features, compared with traditional CT quantitative values.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gongjun Tan ◽  
Binila Baby ◽  
Yuqiu Zhou ◽  
Tianfu Wu

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease which can affect various tissues and organs, posing significant challenges for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The etiology of SLE is highly complex with contributions from environmental factors, stochastic factors as well as genetic susceptibility. The current criteria for diagnosing SLE is based primarily on a combination of clinical presentations and traditional lab testing. However, these tests have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. They are unable to indicate disease cause or guide physicians in decision-making for treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more accurate and robust tool for effective clinical management and drug development in lupus patients. It is fortunate that the emerging Omics have empowered scientists in the discovery and identification of potential novel biomarkers of SLE, especially the markers from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), and other bodily fluids. However, many of these markers have not been carefully validated for clinical use. In addition, it is apparent that individual biomarkers lack sensitivity or specificity. This review summarizes the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value of emerging biomarkers from recent studies, and discusses the potential of these markers in the development of biomarker panel based diagnostics or disease monitoring system in SLE.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 179
Author(s):  
Sule Canberk ◽  
Helena Barroca ◽  
Inês Girão ◽  
Ozlem Aydın ◽  
Aysun Uguz ◽  
...  

Background: To evaluate the performance of TBSRTC through multi-institutional experience in the paediatric population and questioning the management recommendation of ATA Guidelines Task Force on Paediatric Thyroid Cancer; Methods: A retrospective search was conducted in 4 institutions to identify consecutive thyroid FNAC cases in paediatric population between 2000 and 2018. Following the 2nd TBSRTC, the risk of malignancy ratios (ROMs) was given in ranges and calculated by 2 different ways. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and DA ratios were calculated using histologic diagnosis as the gold standard; Results: Among a total of 405 specimens, the distribution of cases for each category was, 44 (11%) for ND, 204 (50%) for B category, 40 (10%) for AUS/FLUS, 36 (9%) for FN/SFN, 24 (6%) for SFM and 57 (14%) for M categories. 153 cases have a histological diagnosis. The ratio of surgery was 23% in ND, 16% in the B, 45% for AUS/FLUS, 75% for SFN/FN and 92% for SFM and 75% in M categories; Conclusions: The data underlines the high ROM values in paediatric population which might be clinically meaningful. The high rate of malignancy of the cohort of operated patients (50%) also underlines the need of better preoperative indicators for stratification. Considering that more than half of the nodules in AUS/FLUS category were benign, direct surgery recommendation could be questionable as proposed in ATA 2015 guidelines.


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