temporal lobe epilepsy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108508
Fedele Dono ◽  
Giacomo Evangelista ◽  
Stefano Consoli ◽  
Giovanna Scorrano ◽  
Martina Di Pietro ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 180 ◽  
pp. 106858
Stefania Aulická ◽  
Katarina Česká ◽  
Jiří Šána ◽  
František Siegl ◽  
Eva Brichtová ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 103294
Bhargava K. Gautham ◽  
Joydeep Mukherjee ◽  
Mariyappa Narayanan ◽  
Raghavendra Kenchaiah ◽  
Ravindranadh C Mundlamuri ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98-107
Chao Liu ◽  
Xiao-Zhi Qiao ◽  
Zi-Han Wei ◽  
Mi Cao ◽  
Zhen-Yu Wu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 951
Kristina D. Yakovleva ◽  
Diana V. Dmitrenko ◽  
Iulia S. Panina ◽  
Anna A. Usoltseva ◽  
Kirill A. Gazenkampf ◽  

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of focal epilepsy in children and adults. TLE is characterized by variable onset and seizures. Moreover, this form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacotherapy. The search for new mechanisms for the development of TLE may provide us with a key to the development of new diagnostic methods and a personalized approach to the treatment. In recent years, the role of non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNA) has been actively studied, among which microRNA (miR) is of the greatest interest. (1) Background: The purpose of the systematic review is to analyze the studies carried out on the role of miRs in the development of mesial TLE (mTLE) and update the existing knowledge about the biomarkers of this disease. (2) Methods: The search for publications was carried out in the databases PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, Clinicalkeys, Scopus, OxfordPress, Cochrane. The search was carried out using keywords and combinations. We analyzed publications for 2016‒2021, including original studies in an animal model of TLE and with the participation of patients with TLE, thematic and systemic reviews, and Cochrane reviews. (3) Results: this thematic review showed that miR‒155, miR‒153, miR‒361‒5p, miR‒4668‒5p, miR‒8071, miR‒197‒5p, miR‒145, miR‒181, miR‒199a, miR‒1183, miR‒129‒2‒3p, miR‒143‒3p (upregulation), miR–134, miR‒0067835, and miR‒153 (downregulation) can be considered as biomarkers of mTLE. However, the roles of miR‒146a, miR‒142, miR‒106b, and miR‒223 are questionable and need further study. (4) Conclusion: In the future, it will be possible to consider previously studied miRs, which have high specificity and sensitivity in mTLE, as prognostic biomarkers (predictors) of the risk of developing this disease in patients with potentially epileptogenic structural damage to the mesial regions of the temporal lobe of the brain (congenital disorders of the neuronal migration and neurogenesis, brain injury, neuro-inflammation, tumor, impaired blood supply, neurodegeneration, etc.).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Michael Müller ◽  
Martijn Dekkers ◽  
Roland Wiest ◽  
Kaspar Schindler ◽  
Christian Rummel

Epilepsy surgery can be a very effective therapy in medication refractory patients. During patient evaluation intracranial EEG is analyzed by clinical experts to identify the brain tissue generating epileptiform events. Quantitative EEG analysis increasingly complements this approach in research settings, but not yet in clinical routine. We investigate the correspondence between epileptiform events and a specific quantitative EEG marker. We analyzed 99 preictal epochs of multichannel intracranial EEG of 40 patients with mixed etiologies. Time and channel of occurrence of epileptiform events (spikes, slow waves, sharp waves, fast oscillations) were annotated by a human expert and non-linear excess interrelations were calculated as a quantitative EEG marker. We assessed whether the visually identified preictal events predicted channels that belonged to the seizure onset zone, that were later resected or that showed strong non-linear interrelations. We also investigated whether the seizure onset zone or the resection were predicted by channels with strong non-linear interrelations. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (32 of 40), epileptic spikes and the seizure onset zone predicted the resected brain tissue much better in patients with favorable seizure control after surgery than in unfavorable outcomes. Beyond that, our analysis did not reveal any significant associations with epileptiform EEG events. Specifically, none of the epileptiform event types did predict non-linear interrelations. In contrast, channels with strong non-linear excess EEG interrelations predicted the resected channels better in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and favorable outcome. Also in the small number of patients with seizure onset in the frontal and parietal lobes, no association between epileptiform events and channels with strong non-linear excess EEG interrelations was detectable. In contrast to patients with temporal seizure onset, EEG channels with strong non-linear excess interrelations did neither predict the seizure onset zone nor the resection of these patients or allow separation between patients with favorable and unfavorable seizure control. Our study indicates that non-linear excess EEG interrelations are not strictly associated with epileptiform events, which are one key concept of current clinical EEG assessment. Rather, they may provide information relevant for surgery planning in temporal lobe epilepsy. Our study suggests to incorporate quantitative EEG analysis in the workup of clinical cases. We make the EEG epochs and expert annotations publicly available in anonymized form to foster similar analyses for other quantitative EEG methods.

2022 ◽  
Muhammad Nauman Arshad ◽  
Simon Oppenheimer ◽  
Jaye Jeong ◽  
Bilge Buyukdemirtas ◽  
Janice R Naegele

GABAergic interneurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus regulate adult neurogenesis, including proliferation, migration, and maturation of new granule cells born in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), some adult-born granule cells migrate ectopically into the hilus, and these cells contribute to increased hyperexcitability and seizures. Yet, transplanting embryonic day 13.5 fetal mouse medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) GABAergic progenitors into the hippocampus of mice with TLE ameliorates spontaneous seizures, due in part, to increased postsynaptic inhibition of adult-born granule cells. Here, we asked whether MGE progenitor transplantation affects earlier stages of adult neurogenesis, by comparing patterns of neurogenesis in naive mice and epileptic (TLE) mice, with or without MGE transplants. In naive and TLE mice, transplanted MGE cells showed comparable migration and process outgrowth. However, in TLE mice with MGE transplants, fewer adult-born Type 3 progenitors migrated ectopically. Furthermore, more Type 3 progenitors survived and migrated into the granule cell layer (GCL), as determined by immunostaining for doublecortin or the thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). To determine whether MGE transplants affected earlier stages of adult neurogenesis, we compared proliferation in the SGZ two-hours after pulse labeling with BrdU in naive vs. TLE mice and found no significant differences. Furthermore, MGE progenitor transplantation had no effect on cell proliferation in the SGZ. Moreover, when compared to naive mice, TLE mice showed increases in inverted Type 1 progenitors and Type 2 progenitors, concomitant with a decrease in the normally oriented radial Type 1 progenitors. Strikingly, these alterations were abrogated by MGE transplantation. Thus, MGE transplants appear to reverse seizure-induced abnormalities in adult neurogenesis by increasing differentiation and radial migration of adult-born granule cell progenitors, outcomes that may ameliorate seizures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Adam Fry ◽  
Dharampreet Singh ◽  
Louis Manganas ◽  
Marc L. Gordon ◽  
Christopher Christodoulou ◽  

Background: Visual hallucinations (VHs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are the cardinal symptoms which declare the onset of PD psychosis (PDP). The anthropomorphic and zoomorphic VHs of PD resemble those of Charles Bonnet syndrome and temporal lobe epilepsy. In both of these disorders electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities have been described. We therefore sought to examine whether VHs in PD were associated with similar EEG abnormalities.Methods: This retrospective observational study searched the medical records of 300 PD patients and filtered for those containing clinical 20-min scalp EEGs. Remaining records were separated into two groups: patients with reported VHs and those without. The prevalence of epileptiform discharges in the EEGs of both groups was identified.Results: Epileptiform discharges were present in 5 of 13 (38.5%) PD patients with VHs; all localized to the temporal lobe. No epileptiform discharges were observed in the EEGs of the 31 PD patients without VHs.Conclusion: The significantly high incidence of temporal lobe epileptiform discharges in PD patients with VHs as compared to those without VHs lends to the possibility of an association visual cortex epileptogenic focus. Accordingly, for treatment-refractory patients, antiepileptic drugs might be considered, as in the case of Charles Bonnet syndrome, temporal lobe epilepsy and migraine with visual aura. Future prospective studies involving larger samples and multi-center cohorts are required to validate these observational findings.

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