heart rate variability
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2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108508
Fedele Dono ◽  
Giacomo Evangelista ◽  
Stefano Consoli ◽  
Giovanna Scorrano ◽  
Martina Di Pietro ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Linda P. Bolin ◽  
Amelia D. Saul ◽  
Lauren L. Bethune Scroggs ◽  
Carolyn Horne

Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death globally with hypertension being a primary cause of premature death from this disease process. Individuals with a family history of cardiovascular disease and hypertension are at a greater risk for developing the same sequela. Autonomic cardiac control is important in the level of cardiac function. One intervention that is effective in improving cardiovascular function is heart rate variability biofeedback training. The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of heart rate biofeedback training on HRV and blood pressure in individuals with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Methods Thirty-four participants (76.5% female, 22.7 ± 4.3 years) completed a baseline assessment and training using an established short-term HRV protocol followed by two weeks of at-home paced breathing employing a smartphone application. The participants were then reassessed in a biofeedback clinic. Results The participants physiological measures showed a significant increase in means between pre and post intervention of SDNN (t (32) = 2.177, p =.037) and TP, (t (32) = 2.327 p = .026). Correlation noted a medium effect on diastolic blood pressure and high frequency heart rate variability, F, r = .41, n =33, p < .05. A multiple regression with all predictor variables in the model found no significance with diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study demonstrated that a two-week paced breathing intervention may assist in reducing heart rate and diastolic blood pressure while improving heart rate variability.

2022 ◽  
George P. Chrousos ◽  
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou ◽  
Flora Bacopoulou ◽  
Mariantonietta Lucafò ◽  
Andrea Gallotta ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenbin Ma ◽  
Haoran Xu ◽  
Muyang Yan ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Wei Yan ◽  

Background: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is crucial for acclimatization. Investigating the responses of acute exposure to a hypoxic environment may provide some knowledge of the cardiopulmonary system’s adjustment mechanism.Objective: The present study investigates the longitudinal changes and recovery in heart rate variability (HRV) in a young healthy population when exposed to a simulated plateau environment.Methods: The study followed a strict experimental paradigm in which physiological signals were collected from 33 healthy college students (26 ± 2 years, 171 cm ± 7 cm, 64 ± 11 kg) using a medical-grade wearable device. The subjects were asked to sit in normoxic (approximately 101 kPa) and hypoxic (4,000 m above sea level, about 62 kPa) environments. The whole experimental process was divided into four stable resting measurement segments in chronological order to analyze the longitudinal changes of physical stress and recovery phases. Seventy-six time-domain, frequency-domain, and non-linear indicators characterizing rhythm variability were analyzed in the four groups.Results: Compared to normobaric normoxia, participants in hypobaric hypoxia had significantly lower HRV time-domain metrics, such as RMSSD, MeanNN, and MedianNN (p &lt; 0.01), substantially higher frequency domain metrics such as LF/HF ratio (p &lt; 0.05), significantly lower Poincaré plot parameters such as SD1/SD2 ratio and other Poincaré plot parameters are reduced considerably (p &lt; 0.01), and Refined Composite Multi-Scale Entropy (RCMSE) curves are reduced significantly (p &lt; 0.01).Conclusion: The present study shows that elevated heart rates, sympathetic activation, and reduced overall complexity were observed in healthy subjects exposed to a hypobaric and hypoxic environment. Moreover, the results indicated that Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis of RR interval series could characterize the degree of minor physiological changes. This novel index of HRV can better explain changes in the human ANS.

Magdalena Napiórkowska-Orkisz ◽  
Aleksandra Gutysz-Wojnicka ◽  
Mariola Tanajewska ◽  
Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of pain experienced by a newborn during a heel puncture for screening using the Newborn Pain Scale (NIPS), measure the heart rate and compare the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods of pain control. Design: Randomized clinical trial. No experimental factors. The test was performed during routine screening. Surroundings: Provincial Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn. Patients/Participants: Pain was assessed in 90 full-term newborns. The newborns were rooming in with their mothers in the hospital. Interventions: Newborns were divided into three groups. Three different methods of pain relief were used: breastfeeding, 20% glucose administered orally and non-nutritional sucking. Main Outcome Measures: The primary pain outcome was measured using the NIPS and the secondary pain outcome measures (heart rate, oxygen saturation) were measured using a pulse oximeter. Results: During capillary blood sampling from the heel, most newborns, n = 56 (62.2%), experienced no pain or mild discomfort, severe pain occurred in n = 23 (25.6%) and moderate pain occurred in n = 11 (12.2%). No significant statistical differences were found between the degree of pain intensity and the intervention used to minimize the pain p = 0.24. Statistically significant relationships were demonstrated between heart rate variability and the degree of pain intensity (p = 0. 01). There were no statistically significant differences between the newborn’s pain intensity and the mother’s opinion on the effectiveness of breastfeeding in minimizing pain. Conclusions: This study did not answer the question of which pain management method used during the heel prick was statistically more effective in reducing pain. However, the results indicate that each of the non-pharmacological interventions (breastfeeding, oral glucose dosing and non-nutritive sucking) applied during heel puncture resulted in effective pain management in most of the newborns enrolled in the study. The relationship between heart rate variability and the severity of pain was confirmed. Mothers of newborns in the breastfeeding group were satisfied with the pain relief methods used in the child and the opportunity to console their newborn during painful procedures in a technologically invasive environment.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Herman de Vries ◽  
Wim Kamphuis ◽  
Cees van der Schans ◽  
Robbert Sanderman ◽  
Hilbrand Oldenhuis

The emergence of wearable sensors that allow for unobtrusive monitoring of physiological and behavioural patterns introduces new opportunities to study the impact of stress in a real-world context. This study explores to what extent within-subject trends in daily Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and daily HRV fluctuations are associated with longitudinal changes in stress, depression, anxiety, and somatisation. Nine Dutch police officers collected daily nocturnal HRV data using an Oura ring during 15–55 weeks. Participants filled in the Four-Dimensional Symptoms Questionnaire every 5 weeks. A sample of 47 five-week observations was collected and analysed using multiple regression. After controlling for trends in total sleep time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and alcohol use, an increasing trend in the seven-day rolling standard deviation of the HRV (HRVsd) was associated with increases in stress and somatisation over 5 weeks. Furthermore, an increasing HRV trend buffered against the association between HRVsd trend and somatisation change, undoing this association when it was combined with increasing HRV. Depression and anxiety could not be related to trends in HRV or HRVsd, which was related to observed floor effects. These results show that monitoring trends in daily HRV via wearables holds promise for automated stress monitoring and providing personalised feedback.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wojciech Walas ◽  
Zenon P. Halaba ◽  
Tomasz Szczapa ◽  
Julita Latka-Grot ◽  
Iwona Maroszyńska ◽  

Objective: New technologies to measure pain responses, such as heart rate variability and skin conductance hold promise in the development of tools that can be reliable and quantifiable of detecting pain. The main objective of this study was to assess the capability of two monitors i.e., Newborn Infant Parasympathetic Evaluation (NIPE) and Skin Conductance Algesimeter for detecting procedural pain in non-anesthetized infants.Materials and Methods: Thirty-three non-anesthetized infants were enrolled to the study. To detect pain caused by heel stick, NIPE, and Skin Conductance monitors and behavioral pain scales were used. Three minutes before and just after heel stick, pain was evaluated by behavioral scales, and simultaneously over the whole period by NIPE and SCA.Results: A statistically significant decrease of NIPE Index and an increase of SCA values were found after the HS procedure. There were no statistically significant differences between the decrease in NIPEi values and the increase in PPS values between subgroups based on pain assessment by behavioral-scale scores.Conclusion: Both NIPE and SCA can be useful for detection of procedural pain and may constitue an additional valuable tool for better handling of pain among patients treated in NICUs. More studies on larger groups of patients are needed.

2022 ◽  
Danielle C. Mathersul ◽  
Kamini Dixit ◽  
R. Jay Schulz-Heik ◽  
Timothy J. Avery ◽  
Jamie M. Zeitzer ◽  

Abstract Background. Emotion regulation (ER) is a key process underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet, little is known about how ER changes with PTSD treatment. Understanding these effects may shed light on treatment processes. Methods. We recently completed a randomised controlled trial demonstrating that a breathing-based yoga practice (Sudarshan kriya yoga; SKY) was not clinically inferior to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) across symptoms of PTSD, depression, or negative affect. Here, in secondary exploratory analyses (intent-to-treat N=85; per protocol N=59), we examined whether self-reported ER (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale; DERS) and physiological ER (heart rate variability; HRV) improved with treatment for clinically significant PTSD symptoms among US Veterans. Results. DERS-Total and all six subscales improved with small-to-moderate effect sizes (d = .24-.66) following CPT or SKY, with no differences between treatment groups. Following SKY (but not CPT), HR max–min (average difference between maximum and minimum beats per minute), normalised HF-HRV (high frequency power), and LF/HF (low-to-high frequency) ratio improved (moved towards a healthier profile; d = .32-.55). Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a breathing-based yoga (SKY) improved both voluntary/intentional and automatic/physiological ER. In contrast, trauma-focused therapy (CPT) only reliably improved self-reported ER. Findings have implications for PTSD treatment and interventions for emotional disorders more broadly. Trial registration: Secondary analyses of ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02366403.

Christopher J Byrd ◽  
Betty R Mc Conn ◽  
Brianna N Gaskill ◽  
Allan P Schinckel ◽  
Angela R Green-Miller ◽  

Abstract Characterizing the sow physiological response to an increased heat load is essential for effective heat stress mitigation. The study objective was to characterize the effects of a 400-min heating episode on sow heart rate variability (HRV) at different reproductive stages. Heart rate variability is a commonly used non-invasive proxy measure of autonomic function. Twenty-seven sows were enrolled in the study according to their gestation stage at time of selection: 1) non-pregnant (NP; n = 7), 2) mid-gestation (MID; 57.3 ± 11.8 d gestation; n = 11), and 3) late-gestation (LATE; 98.8 ± 4.9 d gestation; n = 8). The HRV data utilized in the study were collected from each pig as the dry bulb temperature in the room increased incrementally from 19.84 ± 2.15 °C to 35.54 ± 0.43 °C (range: 17.1 – 37.5 °C) over a 400-min period. After data collection, one 5-min set of continuous heart rate data were identified per pig for each of nine temperature intervals (19 to 20.99, 21 to 22.99, 23 to 24.99, 25 to 26.99, 27 to 28.99, 29 to 30.99, 31 to 32.99, 33 to 34.99, 35 to 36.99 °C). Mean inter-beat interval length (RR), standard deviation of r-r intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency spectral power (HF), sample entropy (SampEn), short-term detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα1), and three measures (%REC, DET, LMEAN) derived from recurrence quantification analysis were calculated for each data set. All data were analyzed using the PROC GLIMMIX procedure in SAS 9.4. Overall, LATE sows exhibited lower RR than NP sows (P &lt; 0.01). The standard deviation of r-r intervals and RMSSD differed between each group (P &lt; 0.01), with LATE sows exhibiting the lowest SDNN and RMSSD and NP sows exhibiting the greatest SDNN and RMSSD. Late-gestation sows exhibited lower HF than both MID and NP sows (P &lt; 0.0001), greater DFA values than NP sows (P = 0.05), and greater DET compared to MID sows (P = 0.001). Late-gestation also sows exhibited greater %REC and LMEAN compared to MID (P &lt; 0.01) and NP sows (all P &lt; 0.01). In conclusion, LATE sows exhibited indicators of greater autonomic stress throughout the heating period compared to MID and NP sows. However, temperature by treatment interactions were not detected as dry bulb increased. Future studies are needed to fully elucidate the effect of gestational stage and increasing dry bulb temperature on sow HRV.

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