specificity and sensitivity
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 951
Kristina D. Yakovleva ◽  
Diana V. Dmitrenko ◽  
Iulia S. Panina ◽  
Anna A. Usoltseva ◽  
Kirill A. Gazenkampf ◽  

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of focal epilepsy in children and adults. TLE is characterized by variable onset and seizures. Moreover, this form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacotherapy. The search for new mechanisms for the development of TLE may provide us with a key to the development of new diagnostic methods and a personalized approach to the treatment. In recent years, the role of non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNA) has been actively studied, among which microRNA (miR) is of the greatest interest. (1) Background: The purpose of the systematic review is to analyze the studies carried out on the role of miRs in the development of mesial TLE (mTLE) and update the existing knowledge about the biomarkers of this disease. (2) Methods: The search for publications was carried out in the databases PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, Clinicalkeys, Scopus, OxfordPress, Cochrane. The search was carried out using keywords and combinations. We analyzed publications for 2016‒2021, including original studies in an animal model of TLE and with the participation of patients with TLE, thematic and systemic reviews, and Cochrane reviews. (3) Results: this thematic review showed that miR‒155, miR‒153, miR‒361‒5p, miR‒4668‒5p, miR‒8071, miR‒197‒5p, miR‒145, miR‒181, miR‒199a, miR‒1183, miR‒129‒2‒3p, miR‒143‒3p (upregulation), miR–134, miR‒0067835, and miR‒153 (downregulation) can be considered as biomarkers of mTLE. However, the roles of miR‒146a, miR‒142, miR‒106b, and miR‒223 are questionable and need further study. (4) Conclusion: In the future, it will be possible to consider previously studied miRs, which have high specificity and sensitivity in mTLE, as prognostic biomarkers (predictors) of the risk of developing this disease in patients with potentially epileptogenic structural damage to the mesial regions of the temporal lobe of the brain (congenital disorders of the neuronal migration and neurogenesis, brain injury, neuro-inflammation, tumor, impaired blood supply, neurodegeneration, etc.).

2022 ◽  
Pengchao Wang ◽  
Guangming Zhang ◽  
Zeling Xu ◽  
Zhe Chen ◽  
Xiaohong Liu ◽  

Bacteria adapt to the constantly changing environments largely by transcriptional regulation through the activities of various transcription factors (TFs). However, techniques that monitor the in situ TF-promoter interactions in living bacteria are lacking. Herein, we developed a whole-cell TF-promoter binding assay based on the intermolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a fluorescent unnatural amino acid CouA which is genetically encoded into defined sites in TFs and the live cell fluorescent nucleic acid stain SYTO 9. We show that this new FRET pair monitors the intricate TF-promoter interactions elicited by various types of signal transduction systems with specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the assay is applicable to identify novel modulators of the regulatory systems of interest and monitor TF activities in bacteria colonized in C. elegans. In conclusion, we established a tractable and sensitive TF-promoter binding assay in living bacteria which not only complements currently available approaches for DNA-protein interactions but also provides novel opportunities for functional annotation of bacterial signal transduction systems and studies of the bacteria-host interface.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Samar Rafik Amin ◽  
Enas W. Mahdy

Abstract Background Hypotension is often occurring after induction of general anesthesia (IGA) and can cause organ hypoperfusion and ischemia which associated with adverse outcomes in patients having both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Elderly patients are particularly more vulnerable and at increased risk to the depressant effect of anesthetic drugs. So, recognition and prevention of such event are of clinical importance. This study recruited patients aged above 60 years, with ASA physical status classification I-II-III who were scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with the aim to assess the effectiveness of preoperative IVC ultrasonography in predicting hypotension which develops following IGA and its association with the volume status in elderly patients receiving general anesthesia, through measurements of the maximum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmax), minimum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmin), inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI), and basal and post-induction mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results Thirty-nine (44.3%) of the 88 patients developed hypotension after IGA, and it was significantly more in patients who did not receive preoperative fluid (p = 0.045). The cut-off for dIVCmax was found as 16.250 mm with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 16.250 mm were calculated as 61.2% and 76.9%, respectively. The cut-off for IVC-CI was found as 33.600% with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 33.600% were calculated as 68.7% and 87.2%, respectively. Conclusions IVC ultrasonography may be helpful in the prediction of preoperative hypovolemia in elderly patients in the form of high IVC-CI and low dIVCmax. The incidence of hypotension was lower in patients who received fluid infusion before IGA.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 167-172
Yang Yang ◽  
Diana Arseni ◽  
Wenjuan Zhang ◽  
Melissa Huang ◽  
Sofia Lövestam ◽  

Hi-res view of human Aβ42 filaments Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by a loss of memory and other cognitive functions and the filamentous assembly of Aβ and tau in the brain. The assembly of Aβ peptides into filaments that end at residue 42 is a central event. Yang et al . used electron cryo–electron microscopy to determine the structures of Aβ42 filaments from human brain (see the Perspective by Willem and Fändrich). They identified two types of related S-shaped filaments, each consisting of two identical protofilaments. These structures will inform the development of better in vitro and animal models, inhibitors of Aβ42 assembly, and imaging agents with increased specificity and sensitivity. —SMH

María Fernanda Calderón Hernádez ◽  

Background: The main objective of this research is to learn the symptoms that occur in this pathology, since we are currently still fighting COVID-19, because of this, it is important to keep us informed about the different diagnostic methods available, which help us reach an earlier and more effective diagnosis. Various articles have been compiled to identify as soon as possible the active cases and thus reduce the number of infections. Materials and methods: This research was conducted on the basis of scientific articles and books, related to COVID-19. Methods: This research was conducted based on 15 scientific articles and 3 books, related to COVID-19. Results: The most important risk factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, age and sex. The most common symptoms in Latin America are dry cough, fatigue, sore throat, and fever. The preferred diagnostic test for COVID-19 is the polymerase chain reaction for its specificity and sensitivity Conclusions: As a conclusion, the main objective of the research was achieved, which is to inform the reader about the most relevant symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 in order to improve the identification of suspected cases. Furthermore, we compare various diagnostic methods that exist to date and determine that PCR is the most specific and sensitive.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gangqiang Lin ◽  
Minlei Hu ◽  
Jiaying Song ◽  
Xueqian Xu ◽  
Haiwei Liu ◽  

Background: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is associated with poor prognosis after acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Purpose: This study aimed to describe the parameters of coagulation function and evaluate the association between the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) and SAP in patients with AIS.Patients and methods: A total of 932 consecutive patients with AIS were included. Coagulation parameters were measured at admission. All patients were classified into two groups according to the optimal cutoff FAR point at which the sum of the specificity and sensitivity was highest. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance potential confounding factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of SAP.Results: A total of 100 (10.7%) patients were diagnosed with SAP. The data showed that fibrinogen, FAR, and D-dimer, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were higher in patients with SAP, while albumin was much lower. Patients with SAP showed a significantly increased FAR when compared with non-SAP (P < 0.001). Patients were assigned to groups of high FAR (≥0.0977) and low FAR (<0.0977) based on the optimal cut-off value. Propensity score matching analysis further confirmed the association between FAR and SAP. After adjusting for confounding and risk factors, multivariate regression analysis showed that the high FAR (≥0.0977) was an independent variable predicting the occurrence of SAP (odds ratio =2.830, 95% CI = 1.654–4.840, P < 0.001). In addition, the FAR was higher in the severe pneumonia group when it was assessed by pneumonia severity index (P = 0.008).Conclusions: High FAR is an independent potential risk factor of SAP, which can help clinicians identify high-risk patients with SAP after AIS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Elena Bertelli ◽  
Laura Mercatelli ◽  
Chiara Marzi ◽  
Eva Pachetti ◽  
Michela Baccini ◽  

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent male malignancy and the assessment of PCa aggressiveness, for which a biopsy is required, is fundamental for patient management. Currently, multiparametric (mp) MRI is strongly recommended before biopsy. Quantitative assessment of mpMRI might provide the radiologist with an objective and noninvasive tool for supporting the decision-making in clinical practice and decreasing intra- and inter-reader variability. In this view, high dimensional radiomics features and Machine Learning (ML) techniques, along with Deep Learning (DL) methods working on raw images directly, could assist the radiologist in the clinical workflow. The aim of this study was to develop and validate ML/DL frameworks on mpMRI data to characterize PCas according to their aggressiveness. We optimized several ML/DL frameworks on T2w, ADC and T2w+ADC data, using a patient-based nested validation scheme. The dataset was composed of 112 patients (132 peripheral lesions with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥ 3) acquired following both PI-RADS 2.0 and 2.1 guidelines. Firstly, ML/DL frameworks trained and validated on PI-RADS 2.0 data were tested on both PI-RADS 2.0 and 2.1 data. Then, we trained, validated and tested ML/DL frameworks on a multi PI-RADS dataset. We reported the performances in terms of Area Under the Receiver Operating curve (AUROC), specificity and sensitivity. The ML/DL frameworks trained on T2w data achieved the overall best performance. Notably, ML and DL frameworks trained and validated on PI-RADS 2.0 data obtained median AUROC values equal to 0.750 and 0.875, respectively, on unseen PI-RADS 2.0 test set. Similarly, ML/DL frameworks trained and validated on multi PI-RADS T2w data showed median AUROC values equal to 0.795 and 0.750, respectively, on unseen multi PI-RADS test set. Conversely, all the ML/DL frameworks trained and validated on PI-RADS 2.0 data, achieved AUROC values no better than the chance level when tested on PI-RADS 2.1 data. Both ML/DL techniques applied on mpMRI seem to be a valid aid in predicting PCa aggressiveness. In particular, ML/DL frameworks fed with T2w images data (objective, fast and non-invasive) show good performances and might support decision-making in patient diagnostic and therapeutic management, reducing intra- and inter-reader variability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Isabel Rodrigues ◽  
Vítor Ramos ◽  
Jacinto Benhadi-Marín ◽  
Aránzazu Moreno ◽  
Alberto Fereres ◽  

AbstractPhilaenus spumarius is a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, one of the most dangerous plants pathogenic bacteria worldwide. There is currently no control measure against this pathogen. Thus, the development of vector control strategies, like generalist predators, such as spiders, could be essential to limit the spread of this vector-borne pathogen. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach was developed to principally detect DNA of P. spumarius in the spider’s gut. Accordingly, 20 primer pairs, targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (cytB) genes, were tested for specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency in detecting P. spumarius DNA. Overall, two primer sets, targeting COI gene (COI_Ph71F/COI_Ph941R) and the cytB gene (cytB_Ph85F/cytB_Ph635R), showed the highest specificity and sensitivity, being able to amplify 870 pb and 550 bp fragments, respectively, with P. spumarius DNA concentrations 100-fold lower than that of the DNA of non-target species. Among these two primer sets, the cytB_Ph85F/cytB_Ph635R was able to detect P. spumarius in the spider Xysticus acerbus, reaching 50% detection success 82 h after feeding. The feasibility of this primer set to detect predation of P. spumarius by spiders was confirmed in the field, where 20% of the collected spiders presented positive amplifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Katharina Radakovics ◽  
Claire Battin ◽  
Judith Leitner ◽  
Sabine Geiselhart ◽  
Wolfgang Paster ◽  

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are primary pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize conserved microbial components. They play important roles in innate immunity but also in the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Impurities containing TLR ligands are a frequent problem in research but also for the production of therapeutics since TLR ligands can exert strong immunomodulatory properties even in minute amounts. Consequently, there is a need for sensitive tools to detect TLR ligands with high sensitivity and specificity. Here we describe the development of a platform based on a highly sensitive NF-κB::eGFP reporter Jurkat JE6-1 T cell line for the detection of TLR ligands. Ectopic expression of TLRs and their coreceptors and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of endogenously expressed TLRs was deployed to generate reporter cell lines selectively expressing functional human TLR2/1, TLR2/6, TLR4 or TLR5 complexes. Using well-defined agonists for the respective TLR complexes we could demonstrate high specificity and sensitivity of the individual reporter lines. The limit of detection for LPS was below 1 pg/mL and ligands for TLR2/1 (Pam3CSK4), TLR2/6 (Fsl-1) and TLR5 (flagellin) were detected at concentrations as low as 1.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL and 10 pg/mL, respectively. We showed that the JE6-1 TLR reporter cells have the utility to characterize different commercially available TLR ligands as well as more complex samples like bacterially expressed proteins or allergen extracts. Impurities in preparations of microbial compounds as well as the lack of specificity of detection systems can lead to erroneous results and currently there is no consensus regarding the involvement of TLRs in the recognition of several molecules with proposed immunostimulatory functions. This reporter system represents a highly suitable tool for the definition of structural requirements for agonists of distinct TLR complexes.

Yamei Li ◽  
Lulu Zhang ◽  
Leshan Xiu ◽  
Di Wang ◽  
Yaling Zeng ◽  

The emerging cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae poses an urgent threat to the continued efficacy of the last-line monotherapy for gonorrhea. Consequently, high-throughput, accurate, and reasonable molecular assays are urgently needed for strengthening antimicrobial-resistance surveillance in N. gonorrhoeae . In this study, we designed a high-throughput multiplex method that incorporates high-resolution melting technology and is based on a 6-codon assay (among the most parsimonious assays) developed following comprehensive and systematic reviews. The results showed that our method can precisely distinguish specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms in resistance-associated genes with a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and a detection limit as low as 10 copies per reaction. This method can be directly applied to clinical samples without cumbersome culture and successfully predicted all cephalosporin-resistant isolates (sensitivity: 100%). The method presented here represents a technique for rapid testing of antimicrobial resistance and will serve as a valuable tool for tailor-made antimicrobial therapy and for monitoring the transmission of cephalosporin-resistant strains.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document