During epilepsy surgery, the gold standard to identify irritative zones (IZ) is electrocorticography (ECoG); however, new techniques are being developed to detect IZ in epilepsy surgery and in neurosurgery in general, such as infrared thermography mapping (ITM), and the use of thermosensitive/thermochromic materials.
In a cohort study of consecutive patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy of the temporal lobe treated with surgery, we evaluated possible adverse effects to the transient placement of a thermochromic/thermosensitive silicone (TTS) on the cerebral cortex and their postoperative evolution. Furthermore, we compared the precision of TTS for detecting cortical IZ against the gold standard ECoG and with ITM, as proof of concept.
We included 10 consecutive patients, 6 women (60%) and 4 men (40%). Age ranges from 15 to 56 years, mean 33.2 years. All were treated with unilateral temporal functional lobectomy. The mean hospital stay was 4 days. There were no immediate or late complications associated with the use of any of the modalities described. In the 10 patients, we obtained consistency in locating the IZ with ECoG, ITM, and the TTS.
The TTS demonstrated biosecurity in this series. The accuracy of the TTS to locate IZ was similar to that of ECoG and ITM in this study. More extensive studies are required to determine its sensitivity and specificity.
Background Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological diseases in children is associated with psychopathology and academic concerns. Epilepsy surgery is considered for refractory epilepsy at some centers in India and hence this study was undertaken to find out prevalence and type of psychopathology in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy before epilepsy surgery.
Methods All data were analyzed from the records of patients undergoing preepilepsy surgery protocol workup in comprehensive center of epilepsy care at a general municipal hospital in Mumbai. A record of 150 children and adolescents in the age group of 3 to 18 years over a period of 10 years was taken and all details of demographics, epilepsy, and psychopathology were recorded.
Results The mean age for our sample was 11.4 ± 3.4 years and a male preponderance was seen. Majority (80%) of the children were pursuing education. The duration of seizure disorder was approximately 4.41 + 2.36 years and complex partial seizures were seen commonly in 50% of the children. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and video electroencephalography (VEEG) findings revealed right sided lateralization followed by left in majority of the patients. Psychopathology was seen in 70 (46%) patients with mental retardation, hyperkinetic disorders affecting attention and activity and oppositional defiant disorder, and unspecified mental disorder due to underlying brain damage being the type of International Classification of Disease-10th Revision (ICD-10) disorders seen. Patients with psychopathology showed a left-sided predominance on their MRI and VEEG findings for laterality of the epileptogenic focus as compared with right side.
Conclusion Refractory seizures and associated psychopathology impact family life, friendships, and academics and worsen prognosis and quality of life. Screening for psychopathology in children with epilepsy would therefore lead to better outcomes especially prior to epilepsy surgery.
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIIa is an easily ignored cause of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging characteristics in FCD type IIIa and to search for predictors associated with postoperative outcome in order to identify potential candidates for epilepsy surgery. We performed a retrospective review including sixty-six patients with FCD type IIIa who underwent resection for drug-resistant epilepsy. We evaluated the clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging features for potential association with seizure outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore their predictive role on the seizure outcome. We demonstrated that thirty-nine (59.1%) patients had seizure freedom outcomes (Engel class Ia) with a median postsurgical follow-up lasting 29.5 months. By univariate analysis, duration of epilepsy (less than 12 years) (p = 0.044), absence of contralateral insular lobe hypometabolism on PET/MRI (pLog-rank = 0.025), and complete resection of epileptogenic area (pLog-rank = 0.004) were associated with seizure outcome. The incomplete resection of the epileptogenic area (hazard ratio = 2.977, 95% CI 1.218–7.277, p = 0.017) was the only independent predictor for seizure recurrence after surgery by multivariate analysis. The results of past history, semiology, electrophysiological, and MRI were not associated with seizure outcomes. Carefully included patients with FCD type IIIa through a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging characteristics can be good candidates for resection. Several preoperative factors appear to be predictive of the postoperative outcome and may help in optimizing the selection of ideal candidates to benefit from epilepsy surgery.
Resective epilepsy surgery is a well-established, evidence-based treatment option in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. A major predictive factor of good surgical outcome is visualization and delineation of a potential epileptogenic lesion by MRI. However, frequently, these lesions are subtle and may escape detection by conventional MRI (≤ 3 T).
We present the EpiUltraStudy protocol to address the hypothesis that application of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI increases the rate of detection of structural lesions and functional brain aberrances in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who are candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Additionally, therapeutic gain will be addressed, testing whether increased lesion detection and tailored resections result in higher rates of seizure freedom 1 year after epilepsy surgery. Sixty patients enroll the study according to the following inclusion criteria: aged ≥ 12 years, diagnosed with drug-resistant focal epilepsy with a suspected epileptogenic focus, negative conventional 3 T MRI during pre-surgical work-up.
All patients will be evaluated by 7 T MRI; ten patients will undergo an additional 9.4 T MRI exam. Images will be evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists and a neurologist or neurosurgeon. Clinical and UHF MRI will be discussed in the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery conference. Demographic and epilepsy characteristics, along with postoperative seizure outcome and histopathological evaluation, will be recorded.
This protocol was reviewed and approved by the local Institutional Review Board and complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and principles of Good Clinical Practice. Results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences.
Trial registration number
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between atrophy of the hippocampus and severity of epilepsy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as the first step to evaluate the possibility of surgery for epilepsy and analyze why patients cannot undergo epilepsy surgery.Methods: Volumetric MRI of the hippocampus was performed in 51 consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 40) with TLE. TLE diagnosis, lateralization, and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of seizures were based on a comprehensive evaluation that included neurologic examination and EEG in all patients. Patients with evidence of a lesion other than hippocampal sclerosis were not included in the study. We assessed the relationship between hippocampal volumes and electrophysiological evidence of seizure severity.Results: According to the affected side based on the EEG, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in volume and a positive correlation between epilepsy and hippocampal atrophy were found.Conclusion: Our results confirm that volume loss to the hippocampus in patients with TLE correlates with the severity of epilepsy based on the EEG. Therefore, surgical treatment is considered early when hippocampal atrophy is evident in patients with refractory TLE. However, in Latin American countries, it is a challenge to get a patient to undergo epilepsy surgery. Therefore, we try to analyze the sad situation in our hospital.