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2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 272-278
Young-Hoon Jo ◽  
Dong-Hong Kim ◽  
Bong Gun Lee

Anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has been used widely in treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis and provides excellent pain relief and functional results. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) was created to treat the complex problem of rotator cuff tear arthropathy. RSA also has been performed for glenohumeral osteoarthritis even in cases where the rotator cuff is preserved and has shown good results comparable with TSA. The indications for RSA are expanding to include tumors of the proximal humerus, revision of hemiarthroplasty to RSA, and revision of failed TSA to RSA. The purposes of this article were to describe comprehensively the conditions under which RSA should be considered in glenohumeral osteoarthritis, to explain its theoretical background, and to review the literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 7435-7451
Xingou Xu ◽  
Ad Stoffelen

Abstract. Wind retrieval parameters, i.e. quality indicators and the two-dimensional variational ambiguity removal (2DVAR) analysis speeds, are explored with the aim to improve wind speed retrieval during rain for tropical regions. We apply the well-researched support vector machine (SVM) method in machine learning (ML) to solve this complex problem in a data-oriented regression. To guarantee the effectiveness of SVM, the inputs are extensively analysed to evaluate their appropriateness for this problem, before the results are produced. The comparisons between distributions and differences between data of rain-contaminated winds, corrected winds and good quality C-band winds illustrate that the rain-distorted wind distributions become more nominal with SVM, hence much reducing the rain-induced biases and error variance. Further confirmation is obtained from a case with synchronous Himawari-8 observation indicating rain (clouds) in the scene. Furthermore, the estimation of simultaneous rain rate is attempted with some success to retrieve both wind and rain. Although additional observations or higher resolution may be required to better assess the accuracy of the wind and rain retrievals, the ML results demonstrate benefits of such methodology in geophysical retrieval and nowcasting applications.

Sara Zabeen ◽  
Sharon Lawn ◽  
Anthony Venning ◽  
Kate Fairweather

People with severe mental illness (SMI) die significantly earlier than their well counterparts, mainly due to preventable chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Based on the existing research, this perspective paper summarises the key contributors to CVD in people with SMI to better target the areas that require more attention to reduce, and ultimately resolve this health inequity. We discuss five broad factors that, according to current international evidence, are believed to be implicated in the development and maintenance of CVD in people with SMI: (1) bio-psychological and lifestyle-related factors; (2) socio-environmental factors; (3) health system-related factors; (4) service culture and practice-related factors; and (5) research-related gaps on how to improve the cardiovascular health of those with SMI. This perspective paper identifies that CVD in people with SMI is a multi-faceted problem involving a range of risk factors. Furthermore, existing chronic care or clinical recovery models alone are insufficient to address this complex problem, and none of these models have identified the significant roles that family caregivers play in improving a person’s self-management behaviours. A new framework is proposed to resolve this complex health issue that warrants a collaborative approach within and between different health and social care sectors.

Vascular ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 170853812110536
Cara A Lyle ◽  
Francis J Caputo

Objectives The increase in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair has led to increasing incidence of aortic endograft infections. Additionally, more atypical organisms are being identified as pathogens. We report on a rare aortic endograft infection to further characterize and understand these infections. Methods We report a Clostridium difficile culture–positive aortic endograft infection in an 82-year-old male 3 years after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Results The patient underwent successful open, complete explant of his endograft and in-situ repair using a rifampin-soaked Dacron graft. He continues to do well. Conclusions Aortic endograft infections are a complex problem further complicated by rare and virulent infections. Unless the patient is at prohibitive risk, the management of infected aortic endografts is surgical graft explant and in-situ or extra-anatomic reconstruction due to the exceedingly high mortality rate with non-operative management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
Nani Marwida ◽  
Mahrizal Mahrizal

Destitution is a fundamental problem faced by all countries, particularly developing countries like Indonesia. Destitution is a complex problem, so special attention is needed to overcome  it.  One  of  the  poverty  reduction  efforts  undertaken  by  the  Government  of Indonesia is through the Family Hope Program (PKH), which began to emerge in 2007.This research aim to find out and analyze the effect of the Family Hope Program on poverty alleviation in Woyla District, which is one of the areas that received assistance from the Family Hope Program. In this study using quantitative descriptive research methods. The object of this research is the Family Hope Program KPM in Woyla District. The data used are sourced from primary data in the form of answers to questionnaires, observations and secondary data from the government’s official website and the secretariat archives of Woyla District. Methods of data analysis carried out in the form of normality test and simple linear regression. The results of the analysis with the help of the SPSS 20 program indicate that there is a strong relationship between the variables of the Family Hope Program (PKH) and the poverty  alleviation  variable  with  a  correlation  coefficient  of  0.601  and  a  determinant coefficient of 0.361. This means that the Family Hope Program (PKH) has a positive and significant effect on destitution reduction in Woyla District, this means that if the Family Hope Program increases, poverty reduction will also increase.

Endoscopy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (12) ◽  
pp. 1288-1288 ◽  
Sridhar Sundaram ◽  
Aditya Kale

2021 ◽  
Hessam Najafi ◽  
Vahid Nourani ◽  
Elnaz Sharghi ◽  
Kiyoumars Roushangar ◽  
Dominika Dąbrowska

Abstract The teleconnection modeling of hydro-climatic events is a complex problem with highly uncertain circumstances. In contrast to the classic fuzzy logic methods, by using the Z-number in addition to the constraint of information, and by evaluating the data reliability, it is possible to characterize the degree of ambiguity of data. In this regard, this study investigates the performance of the Z-number-based model (ZBM) in prediction of classified monthly precipitation (MP) events of two synoptic stations in Iran (up to five months in advance). To this end, the sea surface temperature (SST) of adjacent seas was used as a predictor. The suggested model, by using of Z-number directly and applying fuzzy Hausdorff distance to determine weights of if-then rules, predicted MP events of both the stations with over 70% confidence. Analysis of the results in the test step showed that the ZBM compared to the traditional fuzzy approach improved the results by 69% for Kermanshah and 112% for Tabriz. Overall, the Z-number concept by assessing events reliability, can be used in various sectors of water resources management such as decision-making and drought monitoring.

Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 339
Guido Bologna

In machine learning, ensembles of models based on Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs) or decision trees are considered successful models. However, explaining their responses is a complex problem that requires the creation of new methods of interpretation. A natural way to explain the classifications of the models is to transform them into propositional rules. In this work, we focus on random forests and gradient-boosted trees. Specifically, these models are converted into an ensemble of interpretable MLPs from which propositional rules are produced. The rule extraction method presented here allows one to precisely locate the discriminating hyperplanes that constitute the antecedents of the rules. In experiments based on eight classification problems, we compared our rule extraction technique to “Skope-Rules” and other state-of-the-art techniques. Experiments were performed with ten-fold cross-validation trials, with propositional rules that were also generated from ensembles of interpretable MLPs. By evaluating the characteristics of the extracted rules in terms of complexity, fidelity, and accuracy, the results obtained showed that our rule extraction technique is competitive. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works showing a rule extraction technique that has been applied to both ensembles of decision trees and neural networks.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 2847
Dorota Kamińska ◽  
Kadir Aktas ◽  
Davit Rizhinashvili ◽  
Danila Kuklyanov ◽  
Abdallah Hussein Sham ◽  

Facial emotion recognition is an inherently complex problem due to individual diversity in facial features and racial and cultural differences. Moreover, facial expressions typically reflect the mixture of people’s emotional statuses, which can be expressed using compound emotions. Compound facial emotion recognition makes the problem even more difficult because the discrimination between dominant and complementary emotions is usually weak. We have created a database that includes 31,250 facial images with different emotions of 115 subjects whose gender distribution is almost uniform to address compound emotion recognition. In addition, we have organized a competition based on the proposed dataset, held at FG workshop 2020. This paper analyzes the winner’s approach—a two-stage recognition method (1st stage, coarse recognition; 2nd stage, fine recognition), which enhances the classification of symmetrical emotion labels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yage Cheng ◽  
Bei Gong ◽  
ZhiJuan Jia ◽  
YanYan Yang ◽  
Yuchu He ◽  

In this article, we analysed the problems of electronic medical records (EMRs) and found that the EMRs generated by different hospitals for the same patient are mutually independent and duplication and data sharing are difficult among hospitals. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an efficient and secure cross-domain sharing scheme of EMRs based on edge computing. The program allows the doctor to access the personal history EMRs through the patient’s authorization so that the doctor can understand the patient’s history of illness and, on this basis, generate a new medical record for the patient. Then, the doctor sends the EMRs to the edge server, and the server calculates the ciphertext and adds it to the patient’s personal medical record to complete the case update. Analysis shows that this solution can effectively prevent data tampering and forgery through blockchain and avoid privacy leakage problems in plaintext sharing by using searchable encryption and by relying on edge servers to solve nearby computing tasks and divert the computing capacity of cloud servers to improve efficiency. The security proof shows that the scheme satisfies the complex problem of the BDH assumption. Performance analysis shows that the scheme is feasible and efficient.

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