allergic diseases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 178-181
S. Soldatova ◽  
T. Guseva

The introduction of undeclared ingredients into a food product formulation can lead to serious health problems, especially in people with allergic diseases. Identification of the composition of a food product helps to prevent possible negative consequences of the influence of allergic additives. The present study was carried out by the histological method using the example of canned meat as the most frequently falsified product. Plant-based protein products and thickening food additives were found in many samples. Conclusions are made about a high level of counterfeiting of this type of product, including allergens, which is a risk factor for human health.

Shuo Wang ◽  
Yuan Wei ◽  
Luyan Liu ◽  
Zailing Li

Regulating the composition of human breastmilk has the potential to prevent allergic diseases early in life. The composition of breastmilk is complex, comprising varying levels of oligosaccharides, immunoactive molecules, vitamins, metabolites, and microbes. Although several studies have examined the relationship between different components of breastmilk and infant food allergies, few have investigated the relationship between microorganisms in breastmilk and infant food allergy. In the present study, we selected 135 healthy pregnant women and their full-term newborns from a cohort of 202 mother–infant pairs. Among them, 69 infants were exclusively breastfed until 6 mo after birth. At follow-up, 11 of the 69 infants developed a food allergy in infancy while 22 showed no signs of allergy. Thirty-three breastmilk samples were collected within 1 mo after delivery, and 123 infant fecal samples were collected at five time points following their birth. These samples were analyzed using microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The abundance and evenness of the milk microbiota and the number of differential bacteria were higher in the breastmilk samples from the non-allergy group than in those from the food allergy group. The non-allergy group showed relatively high abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Clostridium IV, Clostridium XIVa, Veillonella, and butyrate-producing bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus. In contrast, the abundance of Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas in breastmilk was higher in the food allergy group. A comparison of the changes in dominant differential breastmilk microbiota in the intestinal flora of the two groups of infants over time revealed that the changes in Bifidobacterium abundance were consistent with those in the breastmilk flora. Functional pathway prediction of breastmilk microflora showed that the enhancement of the metabolic pathways of tyrosine, tryptophan, and fatty acids was significantly different between the groups. We suggest that changes in the breastmilk microbiota can influence the development of food allergies. Breastmilk contains several microbes that have protective effects against food allergies, both by influencing the colonization of intestinal microbiota and by producing butyrate. This study may provide new ideas for improving infant health through early intervention with probiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Oktawia Osiecka ◽  
Joanna Skrzeczynska-Moncznik ◽  
Agnieszka Morytko ◽  
Angelika Mazur ◽  
Pawel Majewski ◽  

Eosinophils and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are both associated with Th2 immune responses and allergic diseases, but whether the fact that they are both implicated in these conditions is pathophysiologically related remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that human eosinophils derived from normal individuals are one of the major sources of SLPI among circulating leukocytes. SLPI was found to be stored in the crystalline core of eosinophil granules, and its dislocation/rearrangement in the crystalline core likely resulted in changes in immunostaining for SLPI in these cells. High levels of SLPI were also detected in blood eosinophils from patients with allergy-associated diseases marked by eosinophilia. These include individuals with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and atopic dermatitis (AD), who were also found to have elevated SLPI levels in their plasma. In addition to the circulating eosinophils, diseased skin of AD patients also contained SLPI-positive eosinophils. Exogenous, recombinant SLPI increased numbers of migratory eosinophils and supported their chemotactic response to CCL11, one of the key chemokines that regulate eosinophil migratory cues. Together, these findings suggest a role for SLPI in controlling Th2 pathophysiologic processes via its impact on and/or from eosinophils.

E Izquierdo ◽  
J Rodriguez-Coira ◽  
MI Delgado-Dolset ◽  
C Gomez-Casado ◽  
D Barber ◽  

The epithelial barrier has been classically considered as only the first line of defense against irritants, pathogens, and allergens, but it is now known that it also plays an essential role in the immunological response against exogenous agents. In fact, recent reports postulate the epithelial barrier hypothesis as a possible explanation for the increasing incidence and severity of allergic diseases. The epithelial barrier preserves the isolation of the inner tissues from potential external threats. Moreover, a coordinated interaction between epithelial and immune cells ensures the unique immune response taking place in mucosal tissues and that is has been reported to be dysregulated in allergic diseases. Herein, we and others have demonstrated that in severe allergic phenotypes, the epithelial barrier experiments several histological modifications and increased in immune cells infiltration, leading to its dysfunction. This is common in atopic dermatitis, asthma, and/or food allergy. However, the precise role of the epithelial barrier in the mucosal biology during allergic diseases progression is not well understood yet. In this review, we aim to compile recent knowledge regarding the histological structure and immunological function of the epithelial barrier and to shed light on the role of this compartment in the onset, and progression of allergic diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Chao Luo ◽  
Ya-Ning Sun ◽  
Zuo-Jing Zeng ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  
Shun-Lin Peng

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Simone Negrini ◽  
Paola Contini ◽  
Giuseppe Murdaca ◽  
Francesco Puppo

Allergy is an inflammatory process determined by a cascade of immune events characterized by T-helper 2 lymphocytes polarization leading to interleukin-4 upregulation, IgE secretion, and mast cell and eosinophil activation. HLA-G molecules, both in membrane-bound and in soluble forms, are known to play a key immunoregulatory role and their involvement in allergic diseases is supported by increasing literature data. HLA-G expression and secretion is specifically induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic patients after in vitro incubation with the causal allergen. Elevated levels of soluble HLA-G molecules are detected in serum of patients with allergic rhinitis correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels, clinical severity, drug consumption and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy. HLA-G genetic polymorphisms confer susceptibility to allergic asthma development and high levels of soluble HLA-G molecules are found in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with allergic asthma correlating with allergen-specific IgE levels. Interestingly, allergic pregnant women have lower plasma sHLA-G levels than non-allergic women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and at delivery. Finally, in allergic patients with atopic dermatitis HLA-G molecules are expressed by T cells, monocytes-macrophages and Langerhans cells infiltrating the dermis. Although at present is difficult to completely define the role of HLA-G molecules in allergic diseases, it may be suggested that they are specifically expressed and secreted by immune cells during the allergic reaction in an attempt to suppress allergic inflammation.

Allergy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Luo Zhang ◽  
Cezmi A Akdis

Kun Baek Song ◽  
Min Jee Park ◽  
Eom Ji Choi ◽  
Sungsu Jung ◽  
Ji-Sun Yoon ◽  

Abstract Background: The level of pollen in Korea has increased over recent decades. Research suggests that pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) may be more frequent in childhood than previously recognized. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PFAS in children aged 6–10 years from a general population-based birth cohort. Methods: We analyzed 930 children from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. Allergic diseases were diagnosed annually by pediatric allergists. The skin prick tests were performed with 14 common inhalant allergens and four food allergens for children aged 3 and 7 years. Results: Of the 930 eligible children, 44 (4.7%) aged 6–10 years were diagnosed with. The mean age at onset was 6.74 years. PFAS prevalence was 7.2% among children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and 19.1% among those with pollinosis, depending on comorbidity. PFAS was more prevalent in schoolchildren with atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and sensitization to food allergens and grass pollen in early childhood. In schoolchildren with AR, only a history of food allergy before 3 years increased the risk of PFAS (aOR 2.971, 95% CI: 1.159–7.615). Conclusion: Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood was associated with PFAS in schoolchildren with AR. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanism by which food allergy in early childhood affects the development of PFAS.

Rosa S. Wong ◽  
Keith T. S. Tung ◽  
Hugo E. Leung ◽  
Reena Chow ◽  
Gilbert T. Chua ◽  

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