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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xia Lv ◽  
Yuyang Jin ◽  
Danting Zhang ◽  
Yixuan Li ◽  
Yakai Fu ◽  
...  

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive dermatomyositis (DM)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) may progress rapidly and lead to high mortality within 6 or 12 months. Except for reported prognostic factors, simple but powerful prognostic biomarkers are still in need in practice. In this study, we focused on circulating monocyte and lymphocyte counts and their variation tendency in the early stage of ILD. A total of 351 patients from two inception anti-MDA5 antibody-positive cohorts were included in this study, with various treatment choices. Lymphocyte count remained lower in the first month after admission in the non-survivor patients. Although baseline monocyte count showed no significant differences, average monocyte count in the following 4 weeks was also lower in the non-survivor group. Based on the C-index and analysis by the “survminer” R package in the discovery cohort, we chose 0.24 × 109/L as the cutoff value for Mono W0-2, 0.61 × 109/L as the cutoff value for lymph W0-2, and 0.78 × 109/L as the cutoff value for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) W0-2, to predict the 6-month all-cause mortality. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves and adjusted hazard ratio with age, gender, and the number of immunosuppressants used all validated that patients with lower average monocyte count, lower average lymphocyte count, or lower average PBMC count in the first 2 weeks after admission had higher 6-month death risk, no matter in the validation cohort or in the pooled data. Furthermore, flow cytometry figured out that non-classical monocytes in patients with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM were significantly lower than healthy controls and patients with DM without anti-MDA5 antibodies. In conclusion, this study elucidated the predictive value of monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the early stage and may help rheumatologists to understand the possible pathogenesis of this challenging disease.


Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 293
Author(s):  
Maria Garofalo ◽  
Cecilia Pandini ◽  
Matteo Bordoni ◽  
Emanuela Jacchetti ◽  
Luca Diamanti ◽  
...  

Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of the causative genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder. SOD1 aggregation contributes to ALS pathogenesis. A fraction of the protein is localized in the nucleus (nSOD1), where it seems to be involved in the regulation of genes participating in the oxidative stress response and DNA repair. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from sporadic ALS (sALS) patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 12) to perform RNA-sequencing experiments and differential expression analysis. Patients were stratified into groups with “high” and “low” levels of nSOD1. We obtained different gene expression patterns for high- and low-nSOD1 patients. Differentially expressed genes in high nSOD1 form a cluster similar to controls compared to the low-nSOD1 group. The pathways activated in high-nSOD1 patients are related to the upregulation of HSP70 molecular chaperones. We demonstrated that, in this condition, the DNA damage is reduced, even under oxidative stress conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of the nuclear localization of SOD1 as a protective mechanism in sALS patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 185-191
Author(s):  
Mahesh Kumar D

Background: Silver Nanoparticles are extensively studied by the scientific community for therapeutic applications. With respect to the fundamental pillars of bioethics “Primum non nocere” equal emphasis should be given to evaluate the toxicological perspectives of Silver nanoparticles. This study aims at evaluating the InVitro cytotoxic effects of Silver nanoparticles synthesized using hesperidin. Aim: To study the In Vitro cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles on PBMC cells using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Methods: Synthesized silver nanoparticles at various concentrations are incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After 24 hours MTT is added to the mixture to evaluate the cell viability post incubation. Yellow MTT (a tetrazole) which is reduced to purple formazan in the mitochondria of living cells. The absorbance of this colored solution can be quantified by measuring at 570 nm by a spectrophotometer. This reduction takes place only when mitochondrial reductase enzymes are active, and therefore conversion can be directly related to the number of viable (living) cells. Results: ?.Conclusion: Silver Nanoparticles do not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity on PBMCs and also there were no dose dependent trends in the results.


Author(s):  
Ricardo Romero-Arguelles ◽  
César Iván Romo-Sáenz ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibáñez ◽  
Patricia Tamez-Guerra ◽  
Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea ◽  
...  

Plant-associated microorganisms represent a potential source of new antitumor compounds. The aim of the present study was to isolate endophytic and rhizosphere Gram-positive bacteria from Ibervillea sonorae and produce extracts with antitumor activity. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained from 28 d bacterial fermentation, after which murine L5178Y-R lymphoma cells growth inhibition was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 15.62 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction colorimetric assay. IC50 and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated and compared with healthy control human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Identification of the isolated strains was performed using the 16S ribosomal gene and by MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry. The endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial extracts from strains ISE-B22, ISE-B26, ISE-B27, ISS-A01, ISS-A06, and ISS-A16 showed significant (p < 0.05) L5178Y-R cell growth inhibition, compared with an untreated control. The rhizosphere Micromonospora echinospora isolate ISS-A16 showed the highest (90.48%) percentage of lymphoma cells growth inhibition and SI (19.1) for PBMC, whereas the Bacillus subtilis ISE-B26 isolate caused significant (p < 0.01) growth inhibition (84.32%) and a SI of 5.2. Taken together, results of the present study evidenced antitumor effects by I. sonorae endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria culture extracts. Further research will involve the elucidation of the compounds that exert the antitumor activity and their evaluation in pre-clinical studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Zhao ◽  
Zhen Liu ◽  
Fei Shao ◽  
Wenjing Zhou ◽  
Zhu Chen ◽  
...  

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eduard Otto Roos ◽  
William Mwangi ◽  
Wilhelm Gerner ◽  
Ryan Waters ◽  
John A Hammond

This multiplex staining panel was developed to differentiate cattle T cells into conventional (CD4 and CD8) and unconventional (γδ-TCR) subsets as well as their stage of differentiation and activation. The combination of CD45RO and CD62L allows the identification of naïve (TNaïve), central memory (TCM), effector memory (TEM) and terminal effector (TTE) T cells. Activated cattle T cells (TAV) can be identified by the cell surface expression of CD25. This panel was developed using cryopreserved cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tested on fresh as well as stimulated PBMCs. Therefore, this 8-colour, 10-parameter flow cytometry panel simultaneously identifies cattle TNaïve, TAV, TCM, TEM, TTE and γδ-TCR cells. This panel will improve our ability to examine T cell response to pathogens and vaccines in cattle including the potential to identify previously undescribed subpopulations. Furthermore, this panel can be readily optimised for other bovid species as many of these reagents are likely to cross react.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Author(s):  
Caterina Selina Mildner ◽  
Dragan Copic ◽  
Matthias Zimmermann ◽  
Michael Lichtenauer ◽  
Martin Direder ◽  
...  

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a result of cardiac non-perfusion and leads to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and compromised cardiac performance. Here, we showed that the secretome of γ-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCsec) improved heart function in a porcine AMI model and displayed beneficial long- and short-term effects. As an AMI is known to strongly affect gene regulation of the ischemia non-affected heart muscle and distal organs, we employed a transcriptomics approach to further study the immediate molecular events orchestrated using the PBMCsec in myocardium, liver, and spleen 24 h post ischemia. In the infarcted area, the PBMCsec mainly induced genes that were essential for cardiomyocyte function and simultaneously downregulated pro-inflammatory genes. Interestingly, genes associated with pro-inflammatory processes were activated in the transition zone, while being downregulated in the remote zone. In the liver, we observed a pronounced inhibition of immune responses using the PBMCsec, while genes involved in urea and tricarboxylic cycles were induced. The spleen displayed elevated lipid metabolism and reduced immunological processes. Together, our study suggested several types of pharmacodynamics by which the PBMCsec conferred immediate cardioprotection. Furthermore, our data supported the assumption that an AMI significantly affects distal organs, suggesting that a holistic treatment of an AMI, as achieved by PBMCsec, might be highly beneficial.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Author(s):  
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  
...  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hong Yu ◽  
Yanbin Niu ◽  
Guohua Jia ◽  
Yujie Liang ◽  
Baolin Chen ◽  
...  

AbstractRetinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) suppression is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential effect and mechanisms of RORA suppression on autism-like behavior (ALB) through maternal diabetes-mediated mouse model. Our in vitro study in human neural progenitor cells shows that transient hyperglycemia induces persistent RORA suppression through oxidative stress-mediated epigenetic modifications and subsequent dissociation of octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 from the RORA promoter, subsequently suppressing the expression of aromatase and superoxide dismutase 2. The in vivo mouse study shows that prenatal RORA deficiency in neuron-specific RORA null mice mimics maternal diabetes-mediated ALB; postnatal RORA expression in the amygdala ameliorates, while postnatal RORA knockdown mimics, maternal diabetes-mediated ALB in offspring. In addition, RORA mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decrease to 34.2% in ASD patients (n = 121) compared to the typically developing group (n = 118), and the related Receiver Operating Characteristic curve shows good sensitivity and specificity with a calculated 84.1% of Area Under the Curve for ASD diagnosis. We conclude that maternal diabetes contributes to ALB in offspring through suppression of RORA and aromatase, RORA expression in PBMC could be a potential marker for ASD screening.


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