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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260695
Author(s):  
Karla Holmboe ◽  
Charlotte Larkman ◽  
Carina de Klerk ◽  
Andrew Simpson ◽  
Martha Ann Bell ◽  
...  

Research into the earliest development of inhibitory control is limited by a lack of suitable tasks. In particular, commonly used inhibitory control tasks frequently have too high language and working memory demands for children under 3 years of age. Furthermore, researchers currently tend to shift to a new set of inhibitory control tasks between infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood, raising doubts about whether the same function is being measured. Tasks that are structurally equivalent across age could potentially help resolve this issue. In the current report, a new response inhibition task, the Early Childhood Inhibitory Touchscreen Task (ECITT), was developed. This task can be minimally modified to suit different ages, whilst remaining structurally equivalent. In the new task, participants have to overcome a tendency to respond to a frequently rewarded location on a touchscreen and instead make an alternative response. The ECITT was validated in three independent studies (with additional data, N = 166, reported in Supporting Information). In Study 1 (N = 81), cross-sectional data indicated that inhibitory performance on the task improved significantly between 24 and 30 months of age. In Study 2 (N = 38), longitudinal data indicated steady improvement in inhibitory control between 18, 21 and 24 months, with significant stability in individual performance differences between each consecutive age in terms of accuracy (but not in terms of reaction time). Finally, in Study 3 (N = 64), inhibitory performance on a faster-paced version of the same task showed a similar developmental course across the lifespan (4–84 years) to other response inhibition tasks and was significantly correlated with Stop-signal performance. The ECITT extends the assessment of response inhibition earlier than previous tasks–into early toddlerhood. Because the task is simple and structurally equivalent across age, future longitudinal studies should benefit from using the ECITT to investigate the development of inhibitory control in a consistent manner across the toddler years and beyond.


Author(s):  
Stine Weder ◽  
Markus Keller ◽  
Morwenna Fischer ◽  
Katja Becker ◽  
Ute Alexy

Abstract Purpose There is an ongoing debate whether vegetarian (VG) and especially vegan (VN) diets are nutritionally adequate in early childhood. Hence, the Vegetarian and Vegan Children Study (VeChi Diet Study) aimed to assess the food and nutrient intake of VG and VN infants. Methods The study examined the diets of 1–3-year-old VG, VN, and omnivorous (OM) children (n = 430). Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day weighed dietary record and compared between groups using ANCOVA. Lifestyle data were collected using a questionnaire. Here, the results of micronutrient and fatty acid intakes are presented. Results Most nutrient intakes (with and without supplements) differed significantly between VN children and the two other groups, with a more favourable overall micronutrient intake in VN, followed by VG children, [e.g., the highest intake of vitamin E (8.3 mg/d vs. VG 7.4 mg/d and OM 5.1 mg/d), vitamin B1 (569 µg/d vs. VG 513 µg/d and OM 481 µg/d), folate (143 µg/d vs. VG 116 µg/d and OM 108 µg/d), magnesium (241 mg/d vs. VG 188 mg/d and OM 164 mg/d), and iron (8.9 mg/d vs. VG 7.3 mg/d and OM 6.0 mg/d)] as well as fat quality [highest intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (8.7 E% vs. VG 6.9 E% and OM 4.5 E%) and lowest intake of saturated fatty acids (9.1 E% vs. VG 11.9 E% and OM 14.0 E%)]. In contrast, OM children had the highest intake of vitamin B2 (639 µg/d vs. VG 461 µg/d and VN 429 µg/d), calcium (445 mg/d vs. VG 399 mg/d and VN 320 mg/d), iodine (47 µg/d vs. VG 33 µg/d and VN 31 µg/d), and DHA (35.4 mg/d vs. VG 16.6 mg/d and VN 18.4 mg/d). Without supplementation, OM children had the highest average vitamin B12 intake (1.5 µg/d vs. VG 0.6 µg/d and VN 0.2 µg/d), whereas VN children had the highest average vitamin B12 intake with supplementation (73.8 µg/d vs. VG 1.3 µg/d and OM 1.7 µg/d). Without supplementation, none of the groups’ median intakes met the harmonised Average Requirement (h-AR) for vitamin D and iodine. Moreover, VG and VN children did not achieve h-ARs for vitamin B2, vitamin B12, and iron—if a low absorption of iron is anticipated; VN children also did not do so for calcium. Conclusion In early childhood, VN and VG diets can provide most micronutrients in desirable amounts and a preferable fat quality compared to an OM diet. Special focus should be paid to (potentially) critical nutrients, particularly vitamin D, iodine, and DHA for all children regardless of diet, as well as vitamin B2, vitamin B12, calcium, and iron for VG and VN children. Trail registration This study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00010982) on (September 2, 2016).


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 1524-1529
Author(s):  
Linawati Novikasari ◽  
Ruspa Dewi

ABSTRAK PHBS merupakan satu pilar utama“ Indonesia Sehat” Sikap PHBS berarti sanggup memelihara, tingkatkan serta melindungi kesehatan dari penyakit serta area yang tidak kondusif buat hidup sehat. Virus Covid-  19 yang diakibatkan oleh Serve Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS- CoV- 2) sudah memunculkan kepanikan di segala dunia, tercantum Indonesia. Penyebaran Virus ini bisa dihindari dengan mempraktikkan pola hidup bersih serta sehat( PHBS), semacam cuci tangan yang benar, etika batuk, dan melindungi kesehatan serta energy tahan badan. Hasil Survei Demografi serta Kesehatan Indonesia menampilkan kalau 93% penduduk Indonesia telah terbiasa cuci tangan dengan sabun serta air mengalir. Sisanya warga Indonesia Cuma cuci tangan dengan air serta deterjen, bukan sabun. Tujuan sehabis penyuluhan kesehatan pendek, diharapkan kanak- kanak dapat tingkatkan pengetahuan serta keahlian dalam penangkalan Covid- 19 dengan gerakan PHBS dirumah ataupun disekolah. Adapula aktivitas yang dicoba berbentuk penyuluhan kesehatan mengenakan lembar balik serta leaflet. Setelah dilakukan penyuluhan ada kenaikan pengetahuan sebanyak 80%  tentang gerakan PHBS selaku penanganan Covid- 19 pada partisipan di Paud Kemuning jaya. Kata Kunci : PHBS,.Anak Usia dini,.Covid-19.                                                                                                ABSTRACT PHBS is one of the main pillars of “Healthy Indonesia” PHBS attitude means being able to maintain, improve and protect health from disease and areas that are not conducive to healthy living. The Covid-19 virus caused by the Serve Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused panic all over the world, including Indonesia. The spread of this virus can be avoided by practicing a clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS), such as proper handwashing, cough etiquette, and protecting the health and immune energy. The results of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey show that 93% of Indonesians are accustomed to washing their hands with soap and running water. The rest of the Indonesians only wash their hands with water and detergent, not soap. The goal after short health counseling is hoped that children can increase their knowledge and skills in preventing Covid-19 with the PHBS movement at home or at school. There are also activities that are tried in the form of health education using flipcharts and leaflets. After the counseling was carried out, there was an 80% increase in knowledge about the PHBS movement as the handling of Covid-19 among participants at Paud Kemuning Jaya. Keywords: PHBS, Early Childhood, Covid-19.


Author(s):  
Hanno Krafft ◽  
Katja Boehm ◽  
Silke Schwarz ◽  
Michael Eichinger ◽  
Arndt Büssing ◽  
...  

AbstractExcessive use of screen media is a global public health issue and especially extensive screen exposure during very early childhood. This review was conducted in order to update previous reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce screen time. An electronic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE, COCHRANE LIBRARY and CINAHL for articles indexed from June 2011 until October 2019. The search identified 933 publications of which 11 publications were included in this review. There are studies showing interventions with a positive influence on reduction of screen time and the participants’ awareness and behavior concerning the use of screen media, as well as studies without such effects. No intervention was identified to be superior. This warrants further investigation of potentially effective combinations of intervention components and long-term follow-up.


Author(s):  
Marion Shields ◽  
Sherene Hattingh

This study investigated the management challenges that Christian early childhood leaders, from four different Christian denominations, encountered in their responsibilities, and in particular, the approaches they used in resolving them. A research design of grounded theory using data collected from survey questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis enabled themes to emerge. A Christian worldview underpinned and framed the leaders’ thoughts, actions, communication, and relationships with students, staff, parents, and the community. For these leaders, their close, reciprocal connection with God sustained, guided and even at times impelled their approach to their daily practice and especially in managing challenges.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sophiya Dulal ◽  
Audrey Prost ◽  
Surendra Karki ◽  
Dafna Merom ◽  
Bhim Prasad Shrestha ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: While nurturing care, including adequate nutrition and responsive caregiving and early learning, is critical to early childhood development, national surveys in Nepal highlight inequalities in feeding and parental caregiving practices. This study aimed to document and analyse infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and cognitive and socio-emotional caregiving practices among caregivers of children under age five in Dhanusha district, Nepal. Methods: We used a subset of data from the MIRA Dhanusha cluster randomised controlled trial, including mother-child dyads (N=1360) when children were aged 0-12 months and a follow-up survey of the same mother-child dyads (N=1352) when children were 7-59 months. We used World Health Organization IYCF indicators and questions from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey-4 tool to obtain information on IYCF and cognitive and socio-emotional caregiving practices, respectively. We collected data on breastfeeding practices in a postpartum 6-week questionnaire and on complementary feeding and caregiving practices in the follow-up survey. Using multivariable logistic regression models, potential explanatory household, parental and child-level variables were tested to determine their independent associations with IYCF and caregiving indicators. Results: The prevalence of feeding indicators varied. Ever breastfed (99%), exclusive breastfeeding in past 24-hours at 0-12 months (89%), and vegetable or fruit consumption (84%) were common, and minimum dietary diversity reached 63%. Problem areas were early initiation of breastfeeding (16%), feeding of colostrum (67%), no pre-lacteal feeding (53%), timely introduction of complementary feeding (56%), and animal-source food consumption (29%). Amongst caregiving indicators, access to books (7%), early stimulation and responsive caregiving (11%), and access to early childhood education (27%) were of particular concern, while 64% had access to toys and 71% received adequate care. Only 38% of children were developmentally on track. Younger children from poor households with young mothers who had not received antenatal visits and delivered at home were at risk of poor IYCF and caregiving practices. Conclusions: Poor IYCF and cognitive and socio-emotional caregiving practices are widely prevalent in lowland Nepal, which highlights the importance of improved integrated nutrition and caregiving interventions in resource-constrained settings.


Author(s):  
Helen Adam ◽  
Laurie J. Harper

AbstractChildren’s picture books contribute to children’s development of gender identity and can impact aspirations and expectations of roles in families and society. However, the world represented in children’s books reflects predominantly middle class, heterosexual, male heroes and characters. This paper reports on a cross-cultural study investigating gender representation in frequently read picture books across eight early learning centres in the United States and Australia. Forty-four educators working with 271 children participated. Data were collected from book audits and observations. Unique to this study is the presentation of a new data analysis instrument, Harper’s Framework of Gender Stereotypes Contained in Children’s Literature. The majority of the books shared by educators in this study promoted traditional, binary and stereotypical viewpoints of gender and gender roles. These findings are concerning as the evidence shows that gender development is a critical part of the earliest and most important learning experience of young children and a requirement of educational policies rooted in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.


2021 ◽  
pp. 129913
Author(s):  
Karoline Farias Koloszuki Maciel ◽  
Miguel David Fuentes-Guevara ◽  
Carolina da Silva Gonçalves ◽  
Pablo Machado Mendes ◽  
Eduarda Gomes de Souza ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 779
Author(s):  
Florencia K. Anggoro ◽  
Mia Dubosarsky ◽  
Sarah Kabourek

In the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), problem-solving skills are part of science and engineering practices for K–12 students in the United States. Evaluating these skills for the youngest learners is difficult due to the lack of established measures. This paper reports on our process of developing an observation instrument to measure preschool children’s learning and their application of problem-solving skills, namely, the steps of the engineering design process (EDP). The instrument, Engineering Preschool Children Observation Tool (EPCOT), was intended to evaluate the frequencies of problem-solving behaviors and use of EDP-related vocabulary by observing preschoolers engaged with the Seeds of STEM eight-unit curriculum in the classroom. In this paper, we describe the development process and revision of EPCOT, its current constructs, and present descriptive findings from using the tool in a pilot study with sixteen classrooms: eight intervention classrooms who received the entire curriculum, and eight comparison classrooms who received only the eighth unit of the curriculum (to enable comparison). We found that, out of 34 possible behaviors across the problem-solving process, children in all classrooms engaged in 31 unique problem-solving behaviors, suggesting that preschool children are indeed capable of meaningfully engaging in solving problems. We also observed a trend that children who were exposed to more of the curriculum (the intervention group) produced more novel vocabulary words than those in the comparison group, who tended to repeat vocabulary words. Since EPCOT was developed in alignment with state and national standards, we believe it has the potential to be used with other early childhood engineering/problem-solving curricula.


PEDIATRICS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (Supplement 3) ◽  
pp. S5-S5
Author(s):  
Timothy Chow ◽  
Christopher Parrish

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