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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hubaida Fuseini ◽  
Rita Smith ◽  
Cindy H. Nochowicz ◽  
Joshua D. Simmons ◽  
LaToya Hannah ◽  

While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven effective in suppressing viremia and disease progression among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH), suboptimal CD4+ T cell reconstitution remains a major obstacle in nearly 30% of ART-treated individuals. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity, or a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, is positively correlated with greater CD4+ T cell recovery in PLWH on ART. Leptin is a known immunomodulator that is produced in proportion to fat mass and is increased in obese individuals, including PLWH. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells from obese PLWH have increased cell proliferation and cytokine production compared to cells from lean PLWH, potentially modulated by differential effects of leptin signaling. To test this hypothesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from obese and lean PLWH with long-term virologic suppression on the same ART regimen were pretreated with recombinant leptin and then stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 or PMA/ionomycin to measure Ki67 expression, leptin receptor (LepR) surface expression and cytokine production. In the absence of leptin, Ki67 expression and IL-17A production were significantly higher in CD4+ T cells from obese compared to lean PLWH. However, LepR expression was significantly lower on CD4+ T cells from obese compared to lean PLWH. After leptin treatment, Ki67 expression was significantly increased in CD4+ T cells from obese PLWH compared to the lean participants. Leptin also increased IL-17A production in CD4+ T cells from obese healthy controls. In contrast, leptin decreased IL-17A production in CD4+ T cells from both obese and lean PLWH. Combined, these results demonstrate that obesity is associated with greater CD4+ T cell proliferation among PLWH, and that higher circulating leptin levels in obesity may contribute to improved CD4+ T reconstitution in PLWH initiating ART.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 958
Marco Ponzetti ◽  
Argia Ucci ◽  
Antonio Maurizi ◽  
Luca Giacchi ◽  
Anna Teti ◽  

Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an adipokine involved in bone and energy metabolism. Its serum levels correlate with bone mechanical unloading and inflammation, two conditions representing hallmarks of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Therefore, we investigated the role of Lcn2 in bone loss induced by muscle failure in the MDX mouse model of DMD. We found increased Lcn2 serum levels in MDX mice at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Consistently, Lcn2 mRNA was higher in MDX versus WT muscles. Immunohistochemistry showed Lcn2 expression in mononuclear cells between muscle fibres and in muscle fibres, thus confirming the gene expression results. We then ablated Lcn2 in MDX mice, breeding them with Lcn2−/− mice (MDXxLcn2−/−), resulting in a higher percentage of trabecular volume/total tissue volume compared to MDX mice, likely due to reduced bone resorption. Moreover, MDXxLcn2−/− mice presented with higher grip strength, increased intact muscle fibres, and reduced serum creatine kinase levels compared to MDX. Consistently, blocking Lcn2 by treating 2-month-old MDX mice with an anti-Lcn2 monoclonal antibody (Lcn2Ab) increased trabecular volume, while reducing osteoclast surface/bone surface compared to MDX mice treated with irrelevant IgG. Grip force was also increased, and diaphragm fibrosis was reduced by the Lcn2Ab. These results suggest that Lcn2 could be a possible therapeutic target to treat DMD-induced bone loss.

2022 ◽  
Hanyu Pan ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Huitong Liang ◽  
Zhengtao Jiang ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  

HIV-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been developed to target latently infected CD4+ T cells that express virus either spontaneously or after intentional latency reversal. However, the T-cell exhaustion and the patient-specific autologous paradigm of CAR-T hurdled the clinical application. Here, we created HIV-specific CAR-T cells using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a 3BNC117-E27 CAR (3BE CAR) construct that enables the expression of PD-1 blocking scFv E27 and the single-chain variable fragment of the HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 to target native HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env). In comparison with T cells expressing 3BNC117-CAR alone, 3BE CAR-T cells showed greater anti-HIV potency with stronger proliferation capability, higher killing efficiency (up to ~75%) and enhanced cytokine secretion in the presence of HIV envelope glycoprotein-expressing cells. Furthermore, our approach achieved high levels (over 97%) of the TCR-deficient 3BE CAR-T cells with the functional inactivation of endogenous TCR to avoid graft-versus-host disease without compromising their antiviral activity relative to standard anti-HIV CAR-T cells. These data suggest that we have provided a feasible approach to large-scale generation of "off-the-shelf" anti-HIV CAR-T cells in combination with antibody therapy of PD-1 blockade, which can be a powerful therapeutic candidate for the functional cure of HIV.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Raveendra R. Kulkarni ◽  
Carissa Gaghan ◽  
Javid Mohammed

The present study evaluated the avian macrophage responses against Clostridium perfringens that varied in their ability to cause necrotic enteritis in chickens. Strains CP5 (avirulent-netB+), CP1 (virulent-netB+), and CP26 (highly virulent-netB+tpeL+) were used to evaluate their effect on macrophages (MQ-NCSU cells) and primary splenic and cecal tonsil mononuclear cells. The bacilli (whole cells) or their secretory products from all three strains induced a significant increase in the macrophage transcription of Toll-like receptor (TLR)21, TLR2, interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD80 genes as well as their nitric oxide (NO) production and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II surface expression compared to an unstimulated control. The CP1 and CP26-induced expression of interferon (IFN)γ, IL-6, CD40 genes, MHC-II upregulation, and NO production was significantly higher than that of CP5 and control groups. Furthermore, splenocytes and cecal tonsillocytes stimulated with bacilli or secretory products from all the strains showed a significant increase in the frequency of macrophages, their surface expression of MHC-II and NO production, while CP26-induced responses were significantly higher for the rest of the groups. In summary, macrophage interaction with C. perfringens can lead to cellular activation and, the ability of this pathogen to induce macrophage responses may depend on its level of virulence.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 293
Maria Garofalo ◽  
Cecilia Pandini ◽  
Matteo Bordoni ◽  
Emanuela Jacchetti ◽  
Luca Diamanti ◽  

Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of the causative genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder. SOD1 aggregation contributes to ALS pathogenesis. A fraction of the protein is localized in the nucleus (nSOD1), where it seems to be involved in the regulation of genes participating in the oxidative stress response and DNA repair. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from sporadic ALS (sALS) patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 12) to perform RNA-sequencing experiments and differential expression analysis. Patients were stratified into groups with “high” and “low” levels of nSOD1. We obtained different gene expression patterns for high- and low-nSOD1 patients. Differentially expressed genes in high nSOD1 form a cluster similar to controls compared to the low-nSOD1 group. The pathways activated in high-nSOD1 patients are related to the upregulation of HSP70 molecular chaperones. We demonstrated that, in this condition, the DNA damage is reduced, even under oxidative stress conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of the nuclear localization of SOD1 as a protective mechanism in sALS patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 185-191
Mahesh Kumar D

Background: Silver Nanoparticles are extensively studied by the scientific community for therapeutic applications. With respect to the fundamental pillars of bioethics “Primum non nocere” equal emphasis should be given to evaluate the toxicological perspectives of Silver nanoparticles. This study aims at evaluating the InVitro cytotoxic effects of Silver nanoparticles synthesized using hesperidin. Aim: To study the In Vitro cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles on PBMC cells using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Methods: Synthesized silver nanoparticles at various concentrations are incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After 24 hours MTT is added to the mixture to evaluate the cell viability post incubation. Yellow MTT (a tetrazole) which is reduced to purple formazan in the mitochondria of living cells. The absorbance of this colored solution can be quantified by measuring at 570 nm by a spectrophotometer. This reduction takes place only when mitochondrial reductase enzymes are active, and therefore conversion can be directly related to the number of viable (living) cells. Results: ?.Conclusion: Silver Nanoparticles do not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity on PBMCs and also there were no dose dependent trends in the results.

Ricardo Romero-Arguelles ◽  
César Iván Romo-Sáenz ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibáñez ◽  
Patricia Tamez-Guerra ◽  
Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea ◽  

Plant-associated microorganisms represent a potential source of new antitumor compounds. The aim of the present study was to isolate endophytic and rhizosphere Gram-positive bacteria from Ibervillea sonorae and produce extracts with antitumor activity. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained from 28 d bacterial fermentation, after which murine L5178Y-R lymphoma cells growth inhibition was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 15.62 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction colorimetric assay. IC50 and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated and compared with healthy control human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Identification of the isolated strains was performed using the 16S ribosomal gene and by MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry. The endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial extracts from strains ISE-B22, ISE-B26, ISE-B27, ISS-A01, ISS-A06, and ISS-A16 showed significant (p < 0.05) L5178Y-R cell growth inhibition, compared with an untreated control. The rhizosphere Micromonospora echinospora isolate ISS-A16 showed the highest (90.48%) percentage of lymphoma cells growth inhibition and SI (19.1) for PBMC, whereas the Bacillus subtilis ISE-B26 isolate caused significant (p < 0.01) growth inhibition (84.32%) and a SI of 5.2. Taken together, results of the present study evidenced antitumor effects by I. sonorae endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria culture extracts. Further research will involve the elucidation of the compounds that exert the antitumor activity and their evaluation in pre-clinical studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 911
Andrea Hanel ◽  
Carsten Carlberg

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belong to the innate and adaptive immune system and are highly sensitive and responsive to changes in their systemic environment. In this study, we focused on the time course of transcriptional changes in freshly isolated human PBMCs 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after onset of stimulation with the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Taking all four time points together, 662 target genes were identified and segregated either by time of differential gene expression into 179 primary and 483 secondary targets or by driver of expression change into 293 direct and 369 indirect targets. The latter classification revealed that more than 50% of target genes were primarily driven by the cells' response to ex vivo exposure than by the nuclear hormone and largely explained its down-regulatory effect. Functional analysis indicated vitamin D’s role in the suppression of the inflammatory and adaptive immune response by down-regulating ten major histocompatibility complex class II genes, five alarmins of the S100 calcium binding protein A family and by affecting six chemokines of the C-X-C motif ligand family. Taken together, studying time-resolved responses allows to better contextualize the effects of vitamin D on the immune system.

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