Cognitive Performance
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nigel Gebodh ◽  
Zeinab Esmaeilpour ◽  
Abhishek Datta ◽  
Marom Bikson

AbstractWe present a dataset combining human-participant high-density electroencephalography (EEG) with physiological and continuous behavioral metrics during transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Data include within participant application of nine High-Definition tES (HD-tES) types, targeting three cortical regions (frontal, motor, parietal) with three stimulation waveforms (DC, 5 Hz, 30 Hz); more than 783 total stimulation trials over 62 sessions with EEG, physiological (ECG, EOG), and continuous behavioral vigilance/alertness metrics. Experiment 1 and 2 consisted of participants performing a continuous vigilance/alertness task over three 70-minute and two 70.5-minute sessions, respectively. Demographic data were collected, as well as self-reported wellness questionnaires before and after each session. Participants received all 9 stimulation types in Experiment 1, with each session including three stimulation types, with 4 trials per type. Participants received two stimulation types in Experiment 2, with 20 trials of a given stimulation type per session. Within-participant reliability was tested by repeating select sessions. This unique dataset supports a range of hypothesis testing including interactions of tDCS/tACS location and frequency, brain-state, physiology, fatigue, and cognitive performance.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samuel RC Hewitt ◽  
Alice J White ◽  
Sarah L Mason ◽  
Roger A Barker

ABSTRACT Objectives Insight is an important predictor of quality of life in Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, estimating insight with traditional methods such as questionnaires is challenging and subject to limitations. This study experimentally quantified metacognitive insight into cognitive performance in Huntington's disease gene-carriers. Methods We dissociated perceptual decision-making performance and metacognitive insight into performance in healthy controls (n=29), premanifest (n=19) and early-manifest (n=10) Huntington's disease gene-carriers. Insight was operationalised as the degree to which a participant's confidence in their performance was informative of their actual performance (metacognitive efficiency) and estimated using a computational model (HMeta-d). Results We found that pre and early-manifest Huntington's disease gene-carriers were impaired in making perceptual decisions compared to controls. Gene-carriers required more evidence in favour of the correct choice to achieve similar performance and perceptual impairments were increased in those with manifest disease. Surprisingly, despite marked perceptual impairments, Huntington's disease gene-carriers retained metacognitive insight into their perceptual performance. This was the case after controlling for confounding variables and regardless of disease stage. Conclusion We report for the first time a dissociation between impaired cognition and intact metacognition (trial-by-trial insight) in the early-stages of a neurodegenerative disease. This unexpected finding contrasts with the prevailing assumption that cognitive deficits are associated with impaired insight. Future studies should investigate how intact metacognitive insight could be used by some early Huntington's disease gene-carriers to positively impact their quality of life. Key words: Huntington's disease, decision-making, cognition, insight, metacognition


Author(s):  
Susanne Meinert ◽  
Nico Nowack ◽  
Dominik Grotegerd ◽  
Jonathan Repple ◽  
Nils R. Winter ◽  
...  

AbstractCognitive deficits are central attendant symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) with a crucial impact in patients’ everyday life. Thus, it is of particular clinical importance to understand their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between brain structure and cognitive performance in MDD patients in a well-characterized sample. N = 1007 participants (NMDD = 482, healthy controls (HC): NHC = 525) were selected from the FOR2107 cohort for this diffusion-tensor imaging study employing tract-based spatial statistics. We conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce neuropsychological test results, and to discover underlying factors of cognitive performance in MDD patients. We tested the association between fractional anisotropy (FA) and diagnosis (MDD vs. HC) and cognitive performance factors. The PCA yielded a single general cognitive performance factor that differed significantly between MDD patients and HC (P < 0.001). We found a significant main effect of the general cognitive performance factor in FA (Ptfce-FWE = 0.002) in a large bilateral cluster consisting of widespread frontotemporal-association fibers. In MDD patients this effect was independent of medication intake, the presence of comorbid diagnoses, the number of previous hospitalizations, and depressive symptomatology. This study provides robust evidence that white matter disturbances and cognitive performance seem to be associated. This association was independent of diagnosis, though MDD patients show more pronounced deficits and lower FA values in the global white matter fiber structure. This suggests a more general, rather than the depression-specific neurological basis for cognitive deficits.


Author(s):  
Chiek Yi You ◽  
Zurina Hassan ◽  
Christian P. Müller ◽  
Farah Wahida Suhaimi

Author(s):  
Camille Chambonnière ◽  
Nicole Fearnbach ◽  
Léna Pelissier ◽  
Pauline Genin ◽  
Alicia Fillon ◽  
...  

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19-related confinement and social restrictions affected the levels of physical fitness and academic achievement in primary school French children. A total of 206 primary school children (106 before confinements and 100 after restrictions) completed a test battery evaluating their anthropometric characteristics, body compositions, activity preferences, cognitive performances and physical fitness. The performance of the Standing Long Jump was better at T0 (169.9 ± 142.5 cm) compared to T1 (135.2 ± 31.4 cm) (p = 0.0367), and the Medicine Ball Throw performance declined from T0 to T1 (297.3 ± 81.1 cm vs. 249 ± 52 cm; p < 0.0001). Motor skills (26.9 ± 6.2 s vs. 30.9 ± 5.4 s; p < 0.0001), the shuttle-run test (stages completed), Maximal Aerobic Speed, and the estimated VO2max were lower at T1 compared to T0 (p < 0.0001). Executive functioning was found to be greater at T0 compared to T1 (p < 0.0001). Explicit liking or wanting for sedentary or physical activities did not change between T0 and T1. Both overall physical fitness and cognitive performance drastically declined among primary school French children with the COVID-19-related public health restrictions, which reinforces the need to urgently develop preventive strategies in anticipation of further mitigation measures.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Czime Litwińczuk ◽  
Nelson Trujillo-Barreto ◽  
Nils Muhlert ◽  
Lauren Cloutman ◽  
Anna Woollams

The relationship between structural and functional brain networks has been characterised as complex: the two networks mirror each other and show mutual influence but they also diverge in their organisation. This work explored whether a combination of structural and functional connectivity can improve models of cognitive performance, and whether this differs by cognitive domain. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to cognitive data from the Human Connectome Project. Four components were obtained, reflecting Retention and Retrieval, Processing Speed, Self-regulation, and Encoding. The PCA-Regression approach was applied to predict cognitive performance using structural, functional and joint structural-functional components. Model quality was evaluated using model evidence, model fit and generalisability. Functional connectivity components produced the most effective models of Retention and Retrieval and Encoding, whereas joint structural-functional components produced most effective models of Processing Speed, and Self-regulation. The present study demonstrates that multimodal data fusion using structural and functional connectivity can help predict cognitive performance, but that the additional explanatory value (relative to overfitting) may depend on the specific selection of cognitive domain. We discuss the implications of these results for studies of the brain basis of cognition in health and disease.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kevin Woods ◽  
Gonçalo Sampaio ◽  
Tedra James ◽  
Emily Przysinda ◽  
Adam Hewett ◽  
...  

Abstract Background music is widely used to sustain attention, but little is known about what musical properties aid attention. This may be due to inter-individual variability in neural responses to music. We test the hypothesis that music can sustain attention by affecting oscillations via acoustic amplitude modulation, differentially for those with varying levels of attentional difficulty. We first show that heavily-modulated music improves sustained attention for participants with more ADHD symptoms. FMRI showed this music elicited greater activity in attentional networks in this group only, and EEG showed greater stimulus-brain coupling for this group in response to the heavily-modulated music. Finally, we parametrically manipulated the depth and rate of amplitude modulations inserted in otherwise-identical music, and found that beta-range modulations helped more than other frequency ranges for participants with more ADHD symptoms. Results suggest the possibility of an oscillation-based neural mechanism for targeted music to support improved cognitive performance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lin Shi ◽  
Tianshuo Yuan ◽  
Shiying Fan ◽  
Jie Zheng ◽  
Yu Diao ◽  
...  

AbstractNeuroscientific studies on the function of the basal ganglia often examine the behavioral performance of patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia (DT), while simultaneously examining the underlying electrophysiological activity during deep brain stimulation surgery. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no studies comparing the cognitive performance of PD and DT patients during surgery. In this study, we assessed the memory function of PD and DT patients with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also tested their cognitive performance during the surgery using a continuous recognition memory test. The results of the MoCA and MMSE failed to reveal significant differences between the PD and DT patients. Additionally, no significant difference was detected by the intraoperative memory test between the PD and DT patients. The intraoperative memory test scores were highly correlated with the MMSE scores and MoCA scores. Our data suggest that DT patients perform similarly to PD patients in cognitive tests during surgery, and intraoperative memory tests can be used as a quick memory assessment tool during surgery.


Author(s):  
Lucia Mason ◽  
Angelica Ronconi ◽  
Sara Scrimin ◽  
Francesca Pazzaglia

AbstractThere is growing interest recently in the outdoor environment surrounding schools where students spent time during breaks, in-school activities, and after-school programs. Several reviews have examined the impact of long-term exposures to nearby nature on students’ academic achievement, but none has focused on the effects of short-term contacts with nature on students’ cognitive performance. The aim of this review is to understand the context in which short-term passive exposures to greenness occur, how cognitive performance is measured, and the conditions under which cognitive benefits emerge at various educational levels. We reviewed 14 studies in the extant literature that report investigations involving students at different educational levels, from elementary school to university, in a short exposure to nature lasting from 10 to 90 min during a study day. The review shows that in 12 out of the 14 studies, across educational levels, cognitive benefits emerge in terms of directed attention restoration from mental fatigue due to contact with nature. A no-cost opportunity to sustain students’ cognition is a break in a green environment after mentally demanding activities.


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