Perceived Stress
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2021 ◽  
Sharon H. Bergquist ◽  
Danyang Wang ◽  
David L. Roberts ◽  
Miranda A. Moore

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 6-13
Pawan Sharma ◽  
Swarndeep Singh ◽  
Umakanta Tiwari ◽  
Rahul Ranjan ◽  
Nabin Lekhak ◽  

Introduction: The current COVID-19 pandemic has increased emotional and physical toll on healthcare workers. The burnout among doctors could be another psychological outcome due to this. Considering the dearth of literature we planned this study with an aim to explore burnout and its correlates among medical doctors of Nepal. Material And Method: An online survey using a cross-sectional design and purposive sampling was conducted during the lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. The tools used were basic proforma, Copenhagen Burn out Inventory (CBI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (bivariate analysis followed by multiple linear regression) was performed with an objective to study prevalence of burnout and its correlates among the medical doctors. Results: The average age of participants was 30.44 years with the majority being male. All the study participants reported moderate to severe level of perceived stress. Around half of them reported moderate to high burnout. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that perceived stress, and working in surgical department were significant correlates for personal and work-related burnout among medical doctors. Additionally, being front-line worker was a significant correlate for client-related burnout. Conclusion: The burden and severity of burnout and perceived stress reported by the medical doctors during COVID-19 pandemic in the present study, suggests it to be an important mental health issue in Nepal. Suitable interventions for targeting this urgent issue of effectively reducing the burnout are warranted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-42
B.D. Karki ◽  
D. Joshi ◽  
A.P. Adhikari

Introduction: First episode psychosis refers to the first time someone experiences psychotic symptoms or a psychotic episode. There are evidences related to the role of major life events and childhood trauma in the development of first episode psychosis. There are few studies regarding the environmental exposure to stressful life events and how these events might influence the onset of a psychotic disorder, and role of perceived stress. This study aimed to identify the relationship between stressful life events and first episode psychosis in Nepalese context. Material And Method: It was a hospital based cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 50 cases of first episode psychosis were included and the diagnosis was made according to ICD 10- Diagnostic Criteria for Research and verified by two consultant psychiatrists. Semi Structured Performa was designed to collect the information about the socio demographic data and perceived stress was assessed with Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES). Results: There were 62% female and 38% male patients with first episode psychosis with mean age 26.32 years. Majority of the participants were from rural areas (94%), married (58%), educated up to primary level (38%) and housewife (40%). 60.7% of ATPD had stressful life events (P =0. 000)which was higher than the stressful life events in patient with Schizophrenia (P =0. 005). There was a positive correlation between stressful life events and gender, setting, socioeconomic status and Diagnosis (P <0.05). Conclusion: Results show the relevance of presence of stressful life events as a potent source of perceived stress in first episode psychosis sample. Therefore this study highlights the importance of psychosocial intervention in this vulnerable group for management of illness and might be an important strategy for prevention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hui Xian Fong ◽  
Kim Cornish ◽  
Hannah Kirk ◽  
Kartini Ilias ◽  
Mohd Farooq Shaikh ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have adversely impacted children on the autism spectrum and their families, especially in Malaysia where this population is often marginalized. The current quantitative research aimed to investigate the impact of the Malaysian COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior and psychological distress of children formally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) as well as the psychological distress and well-being of their parents, in comparison with a typically developing (TD) control group.Methods: The children's ages ranged between 5 and 17 years. The sample included 72 ASC parent-child dyads and 62 TD parent-child dyads. The primary caregiver completed an online survey including the following: demographic and diagnostic information; ASC symptoms; children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety; parents' perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and well-being based on their experience pre- and mid-lockdown (March 18th to June 9th 2020) in Malaysia.Results: Among the ASC group, no significant pre- and mid-lockdown change was found in ASC symptoms (p &gt; 0.05). There were no significant gender differences (boys/girls) in all the child scales. The 2 [diagnosis (ASC, TD)] × 2 [lockdown (pre-lockdown, mid-lockdown)] mixed-model ANOVAs revealed main effects of lockdown on children's attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, anxiety, and parents' perceived stress, depression, and psychological well-being (p &lt; 0.005). There was a main effect of diagnosis in all child and parent variables, except parents' perceived stress (p &gt;0.005). However, there was no significant interaction effect between diagnosis and lockdown (p &gt;0.005). All child behavior (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and child psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress) were significantly correlated in both the ASC and TD groups (p &lt; 0.005). On the other hand, only some of the parent variables were significantly correlated with child variables (p &lt; 0.0045) in the ASC group while none of the parent variables were significantly correlated with the child variables (p &gt; 0.005) in the TD group.Conclusion: The results provide preliminary evidence indicating negative effects of the Malaysian lockdown on both children on the autism spectrum and TD children, as well as their parents. These quantitative results will be triangulated with the qualitative interview data to provide a holistic understanding of the impact of the pandemic, informing translational policy and practice recommendations.

Midhat Z. Jafry ◽  
Jayda Martinez ◽  
Tzuan A. Chen ◽  
Michael S. Businelle ◽  
Darla E. Kendzor ◽  

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is defined as a multidimensional subjective assessment of one’s physical and mental health. Homelessness is associated with numerous stressors that can reduce HRQoL. Social support is defined as the availability of individuals, or resources provided by individuals, to cope with stress. Interpersonal social support may be important in buffering HRQoL from the negative implications of stress. Here, we examine this association in a marginalized group known for high rates of physical and mental health comorbidities: adults experiencing homelessness. Participants (N = 581; 63.7% men; Mage = 43.6 ± 12.2) were recruited from homeless-serving agencies in Oklahoma City. Social support was measured with the 12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). HRQoL was measured by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey using self-rated health, the number of poor mental and poor physical health days over the preceding 30 days, as well as the number of limited activity days as the result of poor mental and/or physical health. Perceived stress was assessed using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The potential moderation effect of social support was examined by assessing the interaction term of social support and stress in a series of linear regression analyses, controlling for sex, age, months homeless, race, education, health insurance status, serious mental illness diagnosis, and recruitment agency/site. There was a significant interaction effect of social support and stress on the prediction of days of poor physical health, days of poor mental health, and days of limited activity (p in all cases ≤ 0.05). Results add to a growing literature on the potentially protective benefits of social support for HRQoL, extend them to a large sample of adults experiencing homelessness in the South, and demonstrate the significance of this moderating effect of social support over and above the influence of several prominent sociodemographic and diagnostic variables. Future work should determine if interventions designed to enhance social support can buffer HRQoL from the deleterious effects of stress among this vulnerable population.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1356
Anna Rutkowska ◽  
David Liska ◽  
Błażej Cieślik ◽  
Adam Wrzeciono ◽  
Jaroslav Broďáni ◽  

The SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic has forced far-reaching changes in higher education. Isolation from peers and distance learning have significantly limited interpersonal contacts, which might have affected the mental well-being of students. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the level of perceived stress during e-learning among Slovak students and to identify the variables that have the most significant impact on mental health among students. The study included 3051 participants, 1773 women (58%) and 1278 (42%) with a mean age of 22.37 years. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) were used to measure the severity of stress and depression level. In addition, an author’s survey was used assessing the areas of social life, education skills, economic field, nutrition habits, and drugs. Almost all study participants were characterized by increased stress level and 47% of them were depressed. Moreover, isolation affected women more, especially in terms of social life and economics. It seems necessary to implement appropriate support programs for students, which could have the potential to improve their psychological condition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Grzegorz Bejda ◽  
Agnieszka Kułak-Bejda ◽  
Napoleon Waszkiewicz ◽  
Elzbieta Krajewska-Kułak

Alcohol consumption among older adults is becoming an increasing public health problem due to the rapidly growing elderly population. There is a theory that Type D personality is positively correlated with alcohol dependence. The study aimed to assess the style of coping with stress, emotions and anxiety in elder men addicted to alcohol and the relationship between the above. The study included 170 men aged 60 years and older (mean age - 63 ± 3.1 years) addicted to alcohol staying in the Department of Alcohol Addiction Therapy for Men. They were tested with the questionnaire sheet and the following scales: Perceived Family Wealth (PFW), Family Affluence Scale (FAS), Cantril's Ladder of Life Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14), and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). The respondents' wealth on a scale of 1–5 points was assessed on avg. 3.1 ± 0.2. The above was confirmed by the results of the FAS scale study, where the respondents obtained an average of 3.9 ± 1.9 (min. 1, max. 8), which proves their average level of affluence. The evaluation of the satisfaction with life using Cantril's Ladder showed that the respondents were also satisfied with life on average (on average 5.5 ± 1.9). The assessment of life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) scale allowed for the conclusion that the respondents were very dissatisfied with their lives (mean 17.2 ± 4.9). The evaluation of the measurement of perceived stress (PSS-10 scale) showed that the respondents obtained an average of 23.5 ± 3.7, and on the sten scale, a mean of 7.7 ± 0.98, which proves a high level of perceived stress. The study using the DS14 scale showed that the respondents were in the negative emotionality (NE) subscale - 17.4 ± 4.5 points, and in the HS scale - 16.2 ± 3.2, which proves that they can be classified as a Type D personality. The participants were very dissatisfied with their lives, with a high perceived stress and Type D personality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1336
Giulia Amicucci ◽  
Federico Salfi ◽  
Aurora D’Atri ◽  
Lorenzo Viselli ◽  
Michele Ferrara

The restraining measures due to the COVID-19 outbreak deeply affected the general population’s sleep health and psychological status. The current literature proposes young and older people as two particularly at-risk groups. However, the differential impact of the lockdown period in these specific age categories needs to be disentangled. Through a web-based survey adopting validated questionnaires, we evaluated and compared sleep quality/habits, insomnia, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms of Italian late adolescents (n = 670; mean age ± SD, 19.38 ± 0.74, 18–20 years) and elderly (n = 253; 68.18 ± 2.79, 65–75 years). Young respondents reported more severe insomnia symptoms, worse subjective sleep quality, longer sleep latency, higher daytime dysfunction, and a more prevalent disruption of sleep habits (bedtime, get-up time, nap) than the elderly. On the other hand, older participants showed shorter sleep duration, lower habitual sleep efficiency, and greater use of sleep medications. Finally, the younger population displayed higher levels of depression and perceived stress. Our findings indicate that the lockdown period had more pervasive repercussions on sleep and the mental health of late adolescents. The implementation of supportive strategies is encouraged for this vulnerable population group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
Maya Amestoy ◽  
Alexandra Fiocco

With a rise in the prevalence of depression among undergraduate students, it is important to identify potential antecedents and modifiable factors in illness development. One of the most well studied etiological predictors of depression among youth and among young adults is the experience of real or perceived stress. However, research further suggests that the impact of stress on health outcomes may largely depend on the coping strategies employed. Emotional eating is an emotion-focused coping strategy that may be used to minimize negative affect stemming from perceived stress. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the moderating role of emotional eating in the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among undergraduate students. A total of 100 undergraduate students (mean age = 20.2 years, 83% female) completed questionnaires that tapped into perceived stress, emotional eating behaviour, and depressive symptoms. Moderation analyses revealed a significant moderation effect (b = .016, t(91) = 2.728, p = .008). Simple slopes showed that the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms increased from low (b = .092) to moderate (b = .147) to high (b = .201) emotional eating tendencies. Findings suggest that perceived stress and emotional eating may have a synergist association with depressive symptoms among undergraduate students.

Work ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Jonas Vinstrup ◽  
Kenneth Jay ◽  
Markus Due Jakobsen ◽  
Lars L. Andersen

BACKGROUND: While the psychosocial work environment within the hospital sector is a topic of great debate, surveys assessing stress often do not differentiate between stress related to work- and private life. Identifying risk factors associated with these domains of daily life would help improve policies as well as target relevant treatment options. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate associations between stress during to work- and private time with Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS). METHODS: Perceived stress was assessed by the full version of CPSS (scores 0–40) as well as by two single-item questions related to stress related to work- and private life, respectively. Associations between these single-items and CPSS were modelled using general linear models controlling for lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Overall, stress due to both work- and private time was strongly associated with CPSS scores. In the full population (n = 3,600), “never experiencing stress” during both work- and private time was associated with low stress scores (6.0, 95%CI 5.1–6.9). “Never experiencing” work-related stress but experiencing private time stress “very often” was associated with high stress scores (22.4, CI 19.8–25.1). Likewise, experiencing work-related stress “very often” but “never experiencing” private time stress was also associated with high stress scores (22.2, CI 20.3–24.2). Lastly, Spearman’s r between the full CPSS and the two single-item questions about work- and private time stress were 0.62 (p <  0.0001) and 0.52 (p <  0.0001), respectively, while the two items were only weakly correlated (r = 0.32). CONCLUSION: The present study shows that perceived stress due to both work and private time is strongly associated with Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale scores. The results illustrate the feasibility of using single-item questions related to work- and private time in identifying domain-specific risk factors for psychosocial stress.

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