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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 217-230
Tuğba Menekli ◽  
Runida Doğan ◽  
Erman Yıldız

The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between perceived stress and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak in the intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 170 nurses working in the ICUs of a hospital in eastern Turkey. Descriptive, chi-square and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze data. In the last three months, 48.2% of the nurses had complaints such as heartburn, 44.1% abdominal distension, 41.7% diarrhea/ constipation. The mean perceived stress level experienced by the nurses was found to be 29.30±5.73. Results from regression analysis included perceived stress score, gender, perceived health status, diet, having been infected with COVID-19 before and risk degree of the ICU in question in terms of COVID-19 revealed a statistically significant associated with scores obtained from GI symptoms. Perceived stress level, health perception status, having been infected with COVID-19 before and the high-risk status of the intensive care unit in question for COVID-19 were predictive factors for the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms. These findings may provide a basis for creating a healthy work environment where factors contributing to work-related stress are reduced and coping strategies are developed. Keywords: gastrointestinal symptoms, intensive care, nurses, stress

Ivy Tam ◽  
Courtney McNamara ◽  
Julie Dunbar ◽  
Katherine O’Connor ◽  
Gonzalo Manzano ◽  

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory virus that can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with studies demonstrating detection of stool viral RNA weeks after respiratory tract clearance. It is unknown if children who test negative for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab may be shedding the virus in their stool. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 stool shedding in children with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 NP polymerase chain reactions (PCR) tests, and to determine clinical factors associated with GI shedding. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled hospitalized patients 0 to 21 years old with a positive or a negative SARS-CoV-2 NP PCR test who had respiratory and/or GI symptoms. Participants were surveyed, and stool samples were sent for viral PCR testing. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate bivariate associations of stool PCR test positivity with categorical variables. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were consented; 34 patients did not provide stool samples so 33 patients were included: 17 NP-positive and 16 NP-negative for SARS-CoV-2. Eight of the 17 NP-positive patients had a positive stool PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, while none of the 16 SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative patients had a positive result (P < .01). For the 17 SARS-CoV-2 NP-positive patients, GI symptoms were associated with a positive stool PCR test (P = .05) for SARS-CoV-2, but this association was not found for all 33 patients (P = .11). No associations were found with patients in an immunocompromised state or those with a comorbid condition, fever and/or chills, respiratory symptoms, headache and/or myalgias, or anosmia and/or ageusia. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 GI shedding is common and associated with GI symptoms in NP-positive children, with 47% having positive stool PCRs for SARS-CoV-2. GI shedding was not demonstrated in SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zahra Akbari Namvar ◽  
Reza Mahdavi ◽  
Masood Shirmohammadi ◽  
Zeinab Nikniaz

Abstract Background In this trial, we investigated the effect of a group-based education program on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with celiac disease (CD). Method In the present study, 130 patients with CD who were on a GFD for at least 3 months, randomly assigned to receive group-based education (n = 66) or routine education in the celiac clinic (n = 64) for 3 months. We assessed gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS) questionnaire and SF-36 questionnaire at baseline and 3 months after interventions. Results The mean age of the participants was 37.57 ± 9.59 years. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the baseline values. Results showed that the mean score of total GSRS score in the intervention group was significantly lower compared with the control group 3 months post-intervention (p = 0.04). Also, there was a significant difference in the mean score of SF-36 between the two groups 3 months post-intervention (p = 0.02). Conclusion Results showed that group-based education was an effective intervention in patients with celiac disease to improve gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life. Trial registration IRCT code: IRCT20080904001197N21; registration date: 5/23/2019.

Jana Sakakini ◽  
Carla Irani ◽  
Rana Bikai ◽  
Gretta Sahyoun ◽  
Souheil Hallit ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Food allergy (FA) is a global health problem with an ongoing rise in prevalence, especially in developed countries. It has been reported to be most prevalent in children, although cases in adults have been increasing as well. FA may lead to life-threatening clinical manifestations. Data in Lebanon and the Middle East are limited. To our knowledge, few studies tackled its prevalence in children in this region. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> This study aims at determining self-reported prevalence of FA in schoolchildren (ages 3–17 years) in Lebanon and describes its characteristics. <b><i>Method:</i></b> Throughout this cross-sectional study, 5 schools from 3 different governorates in Lebanon (Beirut, Mt. Lebanon, and Beqaa) were contacted to participate and 5,312 questionnaires were sent out to be completed by the parents and sent back to the school during May 2019. <b><i>Results:</i></b> 2,610 questionnaires were collected (49.13%). A hundred and forty-eight (6%) children reported to have FA, 58% were males. 80% of them were breastfed, 51% were diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 14 years. Common allergens included cow’s milk and milk products (22.46%), fruits and vegetables (16.58%), eggs (8.02%), and nuts (5.88%). Allergic symptoms included skin reactions (45.08%), gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (29.53%), respiratory symptoms (14.51%), and systemic symptoms (10.88%). 82% of the population with FA has sought professional advice, out of which 54% were confirmed by a physician. Common methods of diagnosis were IgE test (35.71%), food elimination (27.92%), and skin prick test (18.83%). χ<sup>2</sup> analysis has shown that a higher percentage of children with FA had skin reactions (58.8%, <i>p</i> = 0.033) and GI symptoms (30.41%, <i>p</i> = 0.047). A higher percentage of children with allergies were breastfed. No relation between the presence of FA and delivery mode was observed. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> This study has shown that the self-reported prevalence of FA among Lebanese schoolchildren is 6%, and it was correlated with skin and GI symptoms. The most common allergen was cow’s milk. A higher proportion of children with FA were breastfed. No association between the mode of delivery and FA was found. Larger studies are needed to confirm the above findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Gina Gamal Naguib ◽  
Mohamed Hassan ◽  
Ahmed I. Elshafie ◽  
M. G. Naguib

Abstract Background and aim For many years, esophageal manometry has been used for assessment of upper gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms. Chicago classification is the key for diagnosis and managing motility disorders as it is considered as a standardized approach for categorization of esophageal abnormalities. The aim of this study is to analyze types of esophageal motility findings in Egyptian cases who were suffering from upper GI complaints. Methods: This descriptive study included 378 subjects who were suffering from upper GI complaints as dysphagia, vomiting, chest pain and regurgitation in the period between 10/2015–7/2020. Esophageal HRM study was performed for all patients (MMS Laborie device). The catheter was positioned and confirmed passing across the EGJ (esophago-gastric junction) using landmarks. Swallows and resting status were recorded. Anatomical landmarks were placed. Results Most of the patients were complaining of upper GI symptoms. Males were 49.2% of cases. Mean age was 41.3. Dysphagia was the prominent symptom while chest pain was the least symptom. Many manometry findings were observed including ineffective motility, achalasia, absent contractility, EGJ outflow obstruction, jackhammer esophagus and normal findings. Type II achalasia was the dominant type in achalasia patients while Type III was the least. LES was normotensive in most of the cases. Hiatus hernia (HH) was detected in 40.2% of the cases. Conclusion This is considered the first Egyptian descriptive study to determine the prevalence of esophageal motility abnormalities in Egyptian patients complaining of upper GI symptoms. HRM is very important for patients complaining of upper GI symptoms.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Désirée Caselli ◽  
Claudio Cafagno ◽  
Daniela Loconsole ◽  
Annamaria Giannini ◽  
Francesco Tansella ◽  

The strategy for the selection of patients with a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for the organization of a children’s hospital to provide optimal separation into COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 areas and pathways. We analyzed the proportion of children with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 137 consecutive patients admitted between January 2020 and August 2021. GI symptoms were present as follows: diarrhea in 35 patients (26%), vomiting in 16 (12%), and both of them in five (3%); the combination of fever, respiratory symptoms, and diarrhea was observed in 16 patients (12%). Of the 676 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital in the same time interval, 62 (9.2%) had diarrhea, 30 (4.4%) had vomiting, and 11 (1.6%) had nausea; only one patient, a 38-year-old male, presented with isolated GI symptoms at the diagnosis. Although diarrhea was observed in one quarter of cases, one-half of them had the complete triad of fever, respiratory syndrome, and diarrhea, and only five had isolated diarrhea, of which two were diagnosed with a Campylobacter infection. The occurrence of either respiratory symptoms or gastrointestinal symptoms in our patients was not related to the patient age, while younger children were more likely to have a fever. Of the 137 patients, 73 (53%) could be tested for their serum level of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies. The observed titer ranged between 0 (n = 3) and 1729 BAU/mL (median, 425 BAU/mL). Of 137 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral children’s hospital, only three presented with an isolated GI manifestation. It is interesting to note that this finding turned out to be fully in keeping with what was observed on adult patients with COVID-19 in our hospital. The additive diagnostic impact of gastrointestinal involvement for the triage of children with suspected COVID-19 appears limited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 215013192110673
Timothy E. Yen ◽  
Andy Kim ◽  
Maura E. Benson ◽  
Saee Ratnaparkhi ◽  
Ann E. Woolley ◽  

Introduction: Disorders of serum sodium (SNa) are common in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and may reflect underlying disease severity. However, the association of SNa with patient-reported outcomes is not clear. Methods: The Brigham and Women’s Hospital COVID-19 Registry is a prospective cohort study of consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 809). We examined the associations of SNa (continuous and tertiles) on admission with: (1) patient symptoms obtained from detailed chart review; and (2) in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Covariates included demographic data and comorbidities. Results: Mean age was 60 years, 48% were male, and 35% had diabetes. The most frequent symptoms were cough (64%), fever (60%), and shortness of breath (56%). In adjusted models, higher SNa (per mmol/L) was associated with lower odds of GI symptoms (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-0.99), higher odds of confusion (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.13), in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and ICU admission (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05-1.13). The highest sodium tertile (compared with the middle tertile) showed similar associations, in addition to lower odds of either anosmia or ageusia (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.74). Conclusion: In this prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, hypernatremia was associated with higher odds of confusion and in-hospital mortality. These findings may aid providers in identifying high-risk patients who warrant closer attention, thereby furthering patient-centered approaches to care.

Gut ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-325115
Mingxing Lou ◽  
Aihua Cao ◽  
Cuiyuan Jin ◽  
Kai Mi ◽  
Xiyue Xiong ◽  

ObjectiveRecent studies have provided insights into the gut microbiota in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, these studies were restricted owing to limited sampling at the unitary stage of childhood. Herein, we aimed to reveal developmental characteristics of gut microbiota in a large cohort of subjects with ASD combined with interindividual factors impacting gut microbiota.DesignA large cohort of 773 subjects with ASD (aged 16 months to 19 years), 429 neurotypical (NT) development subjects (aged 11 months to 15 years) were emolyed to determine the dynamics change of gut microbiota across different ages using 16S rRNA sequencing.ResultIn subjects with ASD, we observed a distinct but progressive deviation in the development of gut microbiota characterised by persistently decreased alpha diversity, early unsustainable immature microbiota, altered aboudance of 20 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), decreased taxon detection rate and 325 deregulated microbial metabolic functions with age-dependent patterns. We further revealed microbial relationships that have changed extensively in ASD before 3 years of age, which were associated with the severity of behaviour, sleep and GI symptoms in the ASD group. This analysis demonstrated that a signature of the combination of 2 OTUs, Veillonella and Enterobacteriaceae, and 17 microbial metabolic functions efficiently discriminated ASD from NT subjects in both the discovery (area under the curve (AUC)=0.86), and validation 1 (AUC=0.78), 2 (AUC=0.82) and 3 (AUC=0.67) sets.ConclusionOur large cohort combined with clinical symptom analysis highlights the key regulator of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of ASD and emphasises the importance of monitoring and targeting the gut microbiome in future clinical applications of ASD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-49
Mayank Sharma ◽  
Aysun Tekin ◽  
Vikas Bansal ◽  
Marija Bogojevic ◽  
Romil Singh ◽  

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1371
Deanna N. Cannizzaro ◽  
Lydia F. Naughton ◽  
Maya Z. Freeman ◽  
Linda Martin ◽  
Charles L. Bennett ◽  

Background and Objectives: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics routinely prescribed for common bacterial infections despite recent recommendations to use them only for life-threatening cases. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, FQs act in the central nervous system as GABAA receptor inhibitors, which could potentially affect functionality of the vagus nerve at the forefront of gastrointestinal (GI) tract function. Alterations in neural control of digestion have been shown to be linked to Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs), which are usually diagnosed based on self-reported symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of FGIDs following FQ use. Materials and Methods: Self-reports from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System were analyzed together with ~300 survey responses from a social network derived sample to the Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Results: The results of this study suggested that six different FQs are associated with a wide range of GI symptoms not currently reported in the drugs’ labels. The responses from the survey suggested that ~70% of FQ users scored positive for FGID, with no positive correlation between drug type, duration of administration, dosage and frequency of administration. Conclusions: This study showed that GI disorders other than nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are more common than currently reported on the drug labels, and that FGIDs are possibly a common consequence of FQ use even after single use.

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