attachment anxiety
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peter Eric Heinze ◽  
Florian Weck ◽  
Franziska Kühne

Despite the positive effects of including patients’ preferences into therapy on psychotherapy outcomes, there are still few thoroughly validated assessment tools at hand. We translated the 18-item Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP) into German and aimed at replicating its factor structure. Further, we investigated the reliability of the questionnaire and its convergence with trait measures. A heterogeneous sample of N = 969 participants took part in our online survey. Performing ESEM models, we found acceptable model fit for a four-factor structure similar to the original factor structure. Furthermore, we propose an alternative model following the adjustment of single items. The German C-NIP showed acceptable to good reliability, as well as small correlations with Big-Five personality traits, trait and attachment anxiety, locus of control, and temporal focus. However, we recommend further replication of the factor structure and further validation of the C-NIP.

2022 ◽  
Mihai Dricu ◽  
Sina Ladina Jossen ◽  
Tatjana Aue

Abstract People are overoptimistic about the future of those they like or admire (social optimism bias), expecting significantly more desirable than undesirable outcomes. By contrast, they are pessimistic about those they don’t like. To operationalize the (dis)like of social targets, warmth and competence are used as two universal dimensions of social perception. In this pre-registered study, we replicate previous findings while adding two new levels of complexity. First, we make the distinction between the sociality of future outcomes: “alone” outcomes (e.g., enjoying a quiet afternoon by oneself) and “social” outcomes (e.g., enjoying a vacation with the significant other). Second, we investigate the effect of attachment styles on one’s expectations for alone and social outcomes towards the social targets. In line with our hypotheses, the sociality of outcomes moderates both the additive and the multiplicative effects of the warmth and competence of social targets on social optimism bias. Diverging from our hypotheses, we find that attachment anxiety and avoidance do not influence the effects of warmth and competence on social optimism bias. However, exploratory analyses revealed that attachment dimensions buffer the magnitude of social optimism bias for highly self-relevant social targets but do not impact a social pessimism bias for irrelevant targets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (6) ◽  
pp. 575-591
Aneta Viková ◽  
Zdeňka Bajgarová ◽  

Objectives. The study is aimed at describing attachment and coping strategies in the prison population, and relations between these two variables were tested. Sample and setting. The sample consisted of 122 men serving middle-security sentences mainly for property crime. The attachment was determined by the Czech version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, and coping strategies were measured by The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire SVF 78. Hypotheses. The prisoners’ attachment and coping strategies were expected to be different from those of the normal population. The attachment anxiety and avoidance were expected to be related to coping strategies. Statistical analyses. One sample t-test and Wilcoxon one sample test were used for analyzing the differences in scores between the prison and normal population while the Pearson correlation and linear regression were used to test relations between variables. Results. Inmates were significantly different from the normal population both in their attachment and coping strategies. They exhibited higher attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to the normative sample, fearful avoidant attachment prevailed. Prisoners demonstrated higher Play Down, Distraction from Situation, Substitutional Satisfaction, Flight Tendency, Self-accusation, and Active Avoidance, they exhibited lower Guilt Denial and Rumination. Relational avoidance correlated negatively with positive coping strategies, relational anxiety correlated positively with negative coping strategies. Limitations. The main limitation of this study is the use of a non-representative sample and the self-assessment form of the methods employed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 106648072110631
Marissa A. Mosley ◽  
Tom Su ◽  
M. L. Parker

Cell phone use has become a mainstay in the lives of young adults, with 93% of Millennials owning a smartphone. With the increased accessibility of technology, individuals’ cell phone use may lead to personal distress in various facets of life. Specifically, problematic cell phone use may be the result of attempts to fulfill emotional needs or avoid connection with others. The present study used a systemic, attachment-based lens to investigate the roles of parental and romantic attachment in problematic cell phone use. A sample of 479 young adults (ages 18–26) completed an online survey gauging their cell phone use and attachment styles. Mediation analyzes were run to determine if adult attachment mediates the relationship from parental attachment to problematic cell phone use. The results found that attachment anxiety mediates the relationship between communication and alienation subscales for mother and alienation only for father to problematic cell phone use. Clinical implications are discussed with results informing assessment, prevention, and intervention efforts for individuals, families, and couples.

2021 ◽  
Kaiping Zhou ◽  
Linjing Zhang ◽  
Tonggui Li ◽  
Weiping Wang

Abstract Objective: Attachment and rumination was examined as intermediary variable on post-traumatic stress disorder and medication compliance in stroke or TIA patients.Methods: 300 participants with stroke or TIA form The Second Hospital of Hebei Province were selected. Patients accomplished NIHSS, ABCD2, ECR, RSQ and RRS on admission. After 3 months the PCL-C and MMAS were collected.Results: In this stroke or TIA patients, the incident of PTSD was 7.7%; PTSD scores were significantly associated with attachment anxiety (r= 0.225,p<0.01), symptom rumination (r= 0.197, p<0.01), and obsessive thinking (r=0.187, p<0.01).After Sobel test analysis and verification by Baron and Kenny (1996) 's method, we found that ruminant mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and PTSD; obsessive thinking mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and PTSD.Conclusions: The relationship between attachment anxiety and PTSD was positively predicted by rumination and obsessive thinking. Adult attachment style, rumination and PTSD scores may not predict medication compliance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (6) ◽  
pp. 928-941
Walter Odera Owino ◽  
Newton Mukholwe Asakhulu ◽  
Jonathan Muema Mwania ◽  
Rose Mwanza

Infection with sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are risks associated with adolescents’ risky sexual behavior. Mental models of attachment relationships influence behavior and may influence adolescents’ involvement in sexual activities that are risky. This study explored whether attachment styles predicted adolescents’ involvement in risky sexual behavior. A correlational study design was adopted with 367 students from public secondary schools in Nairobi County taking part in the study. The Attachment Styles Questionnaire and Risky Sexual Behavior Scale were used to collect data. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether secure, preoccupied, dismissing or fearful attachment styles predicted students’ risky sexual behavior. The study found that preoccupied attachment style and secure attachment style had predictive effects on risky sexual behavior. Preoccupied attachment style was predictive of greater involvement in risky sexual behavior whereas secure attachment style was predictive of less risky sexual behavior. It was evident based on the findings that secure attachment style was protective against risky sexual behavior whereas preoccupied attachment style created vulnerability to risky sexual behavior. It was recommended that special attention should be paid to adolescents with insecure attachment styles in guidance and counseling programs aimed at discouraging adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and parents/guardians should be encouraged to be more nurturing towards their children in order to encourage formation of secure attachment which was protective against risky sexual behavior. Keywords: attachment styles, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, secure attachment, risky sexual behavior

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1675
Suthikarn Arunrasameesopa ◽  
Nahathai Wongpakaran ◽  
Tinakon Wongpakaran

Background: Attachment styles influence an individual’s ability to maintain relationships throughout their lifespan. Insecure attachment has been associated with many aspects of mental health. The study aimed to explore the influence of attachment on loneliness and depression among old-age residents in long-term care facilities. Methods: A survey was conducted among residents from long term care facilities (LTC) in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic; 221 older people participated in the study. The mean aged was 73.60 ± 7.45 years old, and 57.5% female. All participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale, the six-item revised version of the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and the Revised Experience of Close Relationships questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms, loneliness, and attachment style. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to find the predictors for depressive symptoms. Results: In all, 40.7% of residents in LTC facilities experienced depression. Male sex, education, loneliness, and attachment anxiety predicted the increased level of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Loneliness was confirmed to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms, and attachment anxiety was found to be a strong predicting factor of depressive symptoms. Intervention and research regarding reducing loneliness and attachment anxiety should be promoted in LTC settings.

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