structural reforms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-112
Guilherme Silva Cardoso

ABSTRACT A semantic change has occurred in the scope of structural reforms’ term. This article reviews Celso Furtado’s work, in particular, the ones related to this specific topic, and compares it with the current literature. It appears that structural reforms in the Furtadian conception connoted base transformations and were guided by the developmentalism school of thought. Nowadays, it is of general knowledge that, under the new-institutionalist influence, “structural reforms” are associated with liberal policies for monitoring fiscal consolidations, without consensus as to the power of effectiveness. The effort to rescue and understand the original conceptions of certain keywords in the economic development literature, as well as the way in which their interpretations and practices modify over time, is shown to be of paramount importance as the capitalist system struggle to find ways of adapting itself to the current situation of developing economies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (6) ◽  
pp. 27-31
Angel Giovanny Atanacio Pérez ◽  
Tirso J. Hernández Gracia ◽  
Danae Duana Ávila

Some countries in development like China, the Philippines, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Ukraine do an active promotion in order to raise foreign direct investment (FDI) under the proposal of a positive effect in economic growth while implementing this type of fundraising. Thus, it constitutes an important source of external financing, allowing increases in productivity through technologic transfer as well as rises in competitiveness, efficiency in the managerial models, and expand the countries’ exporting capabilities. After the economic crisis experienced in the 80’s, Latin America, specifically countries like Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, that have based their financing in loans, stopped to raise money by these means when the crisis appeared, arising as an alternative the FDI, also on account of the foreign creditors demanding the payment of their issued resources and the warning of not giving any more financing until these countries restructure their economies, it was established the capital stock of the recipient economy. In this context, it was necessary to implement structural reforms, which were contemplated in the “Washington Consensus”, such as price stabilization and fiscal deficit control with the purpose of recovering the trust to investors and reactivating the capital flow through loans or foreign direct investment aimed at Latin America. In 1990, foreign direct investment became the primary source of external financing to peripheral countries (Aitken y Harrison, 1999:1).

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1.2) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Adéọlá Adijat Fálẹ́yẹ

Festivals provide information on the origin of beliefs, historical antecedents, socio-cultural and socio-political desires, meant for bonding. The resultant effect of participation in festivals enables the participants to protect and sustain the festivals. However, our research informs that a number of the official festival activities with the tones of its referred sacredness in Ilé-Ifè, which ̣ is the domain of data collection and subject of our analysis, are being restructured in outlook and content to boost the economic survival of the people; and for cultural tourism. Tis essay seeks to interrogate these structural reforms, with the mind of identifying improved areas of the age-long tradition, the philosophy of the festival, and the economic value added. The apparatus of analysis shall premise on cultural semiotics and sociology of literature.

Aneta Világi ◽  
Darina Malová ◽  
Dobrinka Kostova

AbstractThe chapter examines the challenges that six Central European Democracies (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia) have faced in the development of political science during the last three decades. We argue that political science as a new social science has gone through many structural reforms: it has acquired a relatively well-institutionalised position, gained autonomy and managed to form its identity. Nevertheless, its position is endangered by the erosion of its legitimacy.In this chapter, we show that political science as a new social science in the Central and Eastern Europe region has acquired a relatively stable position. The discipline has gained autonomy and managed to form its own identity, and has shown a capacity to cope with several challenges that have arisen. However, some of the structural reforms, including the commodification of higher education and the proliferation of political science at universities and other teaching institutions, have recently undermined the stability it had previously gained, as it progressively suffers from a loss of public recognition. We argue that the oversimplified, technocratic approaches of governments in recent years have impaired the legitimacy of the social sciences, and of political science in particular. This common trend is observable in all of the selected countries, albeit with certain variations from one country to another.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Kaihe Shi ◽  
Danning Du ◽  
Xiaoxuan Zhang

Supply-side structural reforms and environmental protection policies have a great impact on the ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry. This paper uses a grey model that introduces a fractional-order cumulative generating operator to study the development of ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing enterprises under the influence of supply-side structural reform in order to derive the future development trend of the industry. The forecast results show that from 2018 to 2022, the number of enterprises and substitute enterprises, inventory, finished products, and assets and liabilities decreases; the scale of income of metal smelting and rolling processing industry increases. The results can serve as a reference for policy makers and industry investors.

2021 ◽  
pp. 58-74
Filipe Recch ◽  
Vinícius Baptista Soares Lopes ◽  
Lucas Hoogerbrugge

Significance Further deployments of security personnel to the main conflict hotspots are likely as the administration seeks to gain a symbolic advantage over major bandit groups ahead of an election year. Meanwhile, budget revenues may fall short of projections and the slow pace of structural reforms will be compounded by political manoeuvring in advance of the 2023 elections. All of this will make it difficult for the Buhari administration to cement a reform legacy in its final full year in office.

Subject Prospects for the Russian economy in 2022. Significance Russia's Ministry of Economic development is forecasting GDP growth of 3.0% in 2022 after an estimated 4.2% this year. The strength of the economic rebound is mostly attributable to the low base of 2020 and a recovery in global demand for commodities, which boosted the profits of large Russian exporters and supported government revenues. In the absence of substantial structural reforms, growth will decelerate in 2022 and remain in the 2-3% range for the foreseeable future.

2021 ◽  
pp. 825-843
Bruno Palier

The chapter analyses the commonalities and transformations of the Bismarckian welfare systems of continental Western Europe. In these systems, social insurance is the primary delivery mechanism, access to benefits is mainly based on work and contribution record, benefits are mainly in cash and calculated as a proportion of past earnings, the biggest share of the financing comes from social contributions paid by employers and employees, and the governance and management of these systems is partly run by collective, compulsory social insurance funds. These features dominate the welfare systems of Germany, France, Belgium, Austria, and, to a lesser degree, the Netherlands. The first part of the chapter focuses on the origins of these systems, the main goals they tried to achieve through their historical development, and the specific principles on which they rely. The second part shows how these systems developed and functioned during their Golden Age, emphasizing their institutional traits and complementarities with certain forms of industrial capitalism. The third part analyses the specificities of the crises these systems are facing, especially the cost of labour. The final part presents the various sequences of welfare reform that have led these systems to adopt structural reforms, especially. The conclusion focuses on the dualization processes that characterize the main changes of Bismarckian welfare systems.

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